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Table of Contents

Administration Guide

Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies

Inline protection profiles combine previously configured rules, profiles, and policies into a comprehensive set that can be applied by a policy. Inline protection profiles contain only the features that are supported in inline topologies, which you use with operation modes Reverse Proxy, True Transparent Proxy, and WCCP.

When the operation mode is changed to Offline Protection or Transparent Inspection, the Inline Protection tab will be hidden.

Inline protection profiles include features that require an inline network topology. They can be configured at any time, but cannot be applied by a policy if the FortiWeb appliance is operating in a mode that does not support them. For details, see How operation mode affects server policy behavior.
To configure an inline protection profile
  1. Before configuring an inline protection profile, first configure any of the following that you want to include in the profile:
  • Go to Policy > Web Protection Profile and select the Inline Protection Profile tab.
  • To access this part of the web UI, your administrator’s account access profile must have Read and Write permission to items in the Web Protection Configuration category. For details, see Permissions.

  • Click Create New.
  • Alternatively, click the Clone icon to copy an existing profile as the basis for a new one. The predefined profiles supplied with your FortiWeb appliance cannot be edited, only viewed or cloned.

  • Configure these settings:
    Name Type a unique name that can be referenced in other parts of the configuration. The maximum length is 63 characters.
    Client Management

    Enable to track a client by the inserted cookie, or source IP when cookie is prohibited.
    For details, see Client management.

    Signatures

    Select the name of the signature set you have configured in Web Protection > Known Attacks, if any, that will be applied to matching requests.

    Enable AMF3, XML, or JSON Protocol Detection if applicable.

    Attack log messages for this feature vary by which type of attack was detected. For a list, see Blocking known attacks .

    HTTP Protocol Constraints

    Select the name of an HTTP parameter constraint, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see HTTP/HTTPS protocol constraints.

    Attack log messages for this feature vary by which type of constraint was violated.

    X-Forwarded-For

    Select the X-Forwarded-For: and X-Real-IP: HTTP header settings to use, if any. For details, see Defining your proxies, clients, & X-headers.

    Note: Configuring this option is required if the true IP address of the client is hidden from FortiWeb because a load balancer or other web proxy is deployed in front. In that case, you must configure an X-header rule so that FortiWeb will block only requests related to the original client. Otherwise, it may block all requests whenever any attack occurs, since all requests will appear to originate from the proxy’s IP.

    Cookie Security Policy Select the name of a cookie security policy to apply to matching requests. For details, see Cookie security.

    If the Security Mode option in the policy is Signed, ensure that Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies is On.
    Custom Policy

    Select the name of a combination source IP, rate limit, HTTP header, and URL access policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Custom Policy.

    Attack log messages contain Custom Access Violation when this feature detects a violation.

    Padding Oracle Protection

    Select the name of padding oracle protection rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Defeating cipher padding attacks on individually encrypted inputs.

    Attack log messages contain Padding Oracle Attack when this feature detects a violation.

    CSRF Protection

    Select the name of cross-site request forgery protection rule, if any, to apply to matching requests. For details, see Defeating cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks.

    Available only when Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies is selected.

    HTTP Header Security

    Select the name of HTTP header security policy, if any, to apply to matching responses.

    For details, see HTTP Security Headers.

    Man in the Browser Protection

    Select the name of an MiTB protection rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Protection for Man-in-the-Browser (MiTB) attacks.

    URL Encryption Policy

    Select the name of a URL encryption policy if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see URL encryption.

    SQL/XSS Syntax Based Detection

    Select the name of a SQL/XSS syntax based detection policy if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Syntax-based SQL/XSS injection detection.

    Parameter Validation

    Select the name of the parameter validation rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Validating parameters (“input rules”).

    Attack log messages contain Parameter Validation Violation when this feature detects a parameter rule violation.

    Hidden Fields Protection

    Select the name of the hidden fields protection rule, if any, to use to protect hidden fields on your website. For details, see Preventing tampering with hidden inputs.

    Attack log messages contain Hidden Field Manipulation when this feature detects tampering.

    This option appears only when Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies is enabled.

    File Security

    Select an existing file security policy, if any, that will be applied to matching HTTP requests. For details, see Limiting file uploads.

    Attack log messages contain Illegal File Size when this feature detects an excessively large upload.

    Enable AMF3 Protocol Detection

    Enable to scan requests that use action message format 3.0 (AMF3) for:

    • Cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks
    • SQL injection attacks
    • Common exploits

    and other attack signatures that you have enabled in Signatures.

    AMF3 is a binary format that can be used by Adobe Flash/Flex clients to send input to server-side software.

    Caution: To scan for attacks or enforce input rules on AMF3, you must enable this option. Failure to enable the option will cause the FortiWeb appliance to be unable to scan AMF3 requests for attacks.

    WebSocket Security

    Select the name of a WebSocket security rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see WebSocket protocol.

    URL Access

    Select the name of the URL access policy, if any, that will be applied to matching HTTP requests. For details, see Restricting access to specific URLs.

    Attack log messages contain URL Access Violation when this feature detects a URL matched by this policy.

    Allow Method

    Select an existing allow method policy, if any, that will be applied to matching HTTP requests. For details, see Specifying allowed HTTP methods.

    Attack log messages contain HTTP Method Violation when this feature detects a non-allowed HTTP request method.

    CORS Protection Select the name of an existing CORS Protection policy. For details, see Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) protection.

    Bot Mitigation Policy

    Select the name of an existing bot mitigation policy. For details, see Configuring bot mitigation policy.

    XML Protection

    Select the name of an existing XML protection policy. For details, see Configuring XML protection.

    JSON Protection

    Select the name of an existing JSON protection policy. For details, see Configuring JSON protection.

    OpenAPI Protection

    Select the name of an existing OpenAPI protection policy. For details, see OpenAPI Validation.

    API Gateway

    Select the name of an existing API gateway policy. For details, see Configuring API gateway policy.
    DoS Protection Policy Select the name of an existing DoS prevention policy. For details, see Grouping DoS protection rules.

    Mobile Application Identification

    Enable to configure the JWT token secret and token header to verify a request from a mobile application.

    Refer to Approov doc for how to get the token.

    For details, see Configuring mobile API protection.

    Note: You need to enable Mobile Application Identification first from System > Config > Feature Visibility.

    Token Secret

    Enter the token secret that you have got from Approov.

    Available only when Mobile Application Identification is enabled.

    Token Header

    Specify the header where the token is carried.

    Available only when Mobile Application Identification is enabled.

    Mobile API Protection

    Select the name of an existing API protection policy. For details, see Configuring mobile API protection.

    URL Rewriting

    Select the name of a URL rewriting rule set, if any, that will be applied to matching requests.

    For details, see Rewriting & redirecting.

    HTTP Authentication

    Select the name of an authorization policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Offloading HTTP authentication & authorization.

    If the client fails to authenticate, it will receive an HTTP 403 Access Forbidden error message.

    Site Publish Select the name of a site publishing policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Site Publishing (Single sign-on).
    File Compress Select the name of an compression policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Configuring compression offloading.
    IP Reputation Enable to apply IP reputation intelligence. For details, see "blocklisting source IPs with poor reputation" on page 1.
    FortiGate Quarantined IPs

    Enable to detect source IP addresses that a FortiGate unit is currently preventing from interacting with the network and protected systems. Then, select the action that FortiWeb takes if it detects a quarantined IP address:

    • Alert—Accept the request and generate an alert email, log message, or both.
    • Alert & Deny—Block the request and generate an alert, log message, or both.
    • Deny (no log)—Block the request (or reset the connection).

    Note: If FortiWeb is deployed behind a NAT load balancer and this option is enabled, to prevent FortiWeb from blocking all connections when it detects a violation of this type, define an X-header that indicates the original client’s IP. For details, see Defining your proxies, clients, & X-headers.

    In addition, select a severity level and trigger policy.

    For information on configuring communication with the FortiGate that provides the list of quarantined IP addresses, see Receiving quarantined source IP addresses from FortiGate.

    IP List Select the name of a client allow list or block list, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see "blocklisting & allowlisting clients using a source IP or source IP range" on page 1.
    Geo IP Select the name of a geographically-based client block list, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see "blocklisting & allowlisting countries & regions" on page 1.
    User Tracking Select the name of a user tracking policy, if any, to use for matching requests. For details, see Tracking users.
    Redirect URL

    Type a URL including the FQDN/IP and path, if any, to which a client will be redirected if:

    • Its request violates any of the rules in this profile, and
    • The Action for the rule is set to Redirect.

    For example, you could enter:

    www.example.com/products/

    If you do not enter a URL, depending on the type of violation and the configuration, the FortiWeb appliance will log the violation, may attempt to remove the offending parts, and could either reset the connection or return an HTTP 403 Access Forbidden or 404 File Not Found error message.

    Redirect URL With Reason

    Enable to include the reason for redirection as a parameter in the URL, such as reason747sha=Parameter%20Validation%20Violation, when traffic has been redirected using Redirect URL. The FortiWeb appliance also adds redirect491=1 to the URL to detect and cancel a redirect loop (if the redirect action would otherwise recursively triggers an attack event). FortiWeb will strip these two parameters before it forwards the processed traffic to the back-end servers.

    By default, this option is disabled.

    Caution: If the FortiWeb appliance is protecting a redirect URL, enable this option to prevent infinite redirect loops.

  • To view or modify a component without leaving the page, next to the drop-down menu where you have selected the component, click Detail.

  • Click OK.
  • To apply the inline protection profile, select it in a server policy. For details, see Configuring an HTTP server policy.
  • See also

    Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies

    Inline protection profiles combine previously configured rules, profiles, and policies into a comprehensive set that can be applied by a policy. Inline protection profiles contain only the features that are supported in inline topologies, which you use with operation modes Reverse Proxy, True Transparent Proxy, and WCCP.

    When the operation mode is changed to Offline Protection or Transparent Inspection, the Inline Protection tab will be hidden.

    Inline protection profiles include features that require an inline network topology. They can be configured at any time, but cannot be applied by a policy if the FortiWeb appliance is operating in a mode that does not support them. For details, see How operation mode affects server policy behavior.
    To configure an inline protection profile
    1. Before configuring an inline protection profile, first configure any of the following that you want to include in the profile:
  • Go to Policy > Web Protection Profile and select the Inline Protection Profile tab.
  • To access this part of the web UI, your administrator’s account access profile must have Read and Write permission to items in the Web Protection Configuration category. For details, see Permissions.

  • Click Create New.
  • Alternatively, click the Clone icon to copy an existing profile as the basis for a new one. The predefined profiles supplied with your FortiWeb appliance cannot be edited, only viewed or cloned.

  • Configure these settings:
    Name Type a unique name that can be referenced in other parts of the configuration. The maximum length is 63 characters.
    Client Management

    Enable to track a client by the inserted cookie, or source IP when cookie is prohibited.
    For details, see Client management.

    Signatures

    Select the name of the signature set you have configured in Web Protection > Known Attacks, if any, that will be applied to matching requests.

    Enable AMF3, XML, or JSON Protocol Detection if applicable.

    Attack log messages for this feature vary by which type of attack was detected. For a list, see Blocking known attacks .

    HTTP Protocol Constraints

    Select the name of an HTTP parameter constraint, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see HTTP/HTTPS protocol constraints.

    Attack log messages for this feature vary by which type of constraint was violated.

    X-Forwarded-For

    Select the X-Forwarded-For: and X-Real-IP: HTTP header settings to use, if any. For details, see Defining your proxies, clients, & X-headers.

    Note: Configuring this option is required if the true IP address of the client is hidden from FortiWeb because a load balancer or other web proxy is deployed in front. In that case, you must configure an X-header rule so that FortiWeb will block only requests related to the original client. Otherwise, it may block all requests whenever any attack occurs, since all requests will appear to originate from the proxy’s IP.

    Cookie Security Policy Select the name of a cookie security policy to apply to matching requests. For details, see Cookie security.

    If the Security Mode option in the policy is Signed, ensure that Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies is On.
    Custom Policy

    Select the name of a combination source IP, rate limit, HTTP header, and URL access policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Custom Policy.

    Attack log messages contain Custom Access Violation when this feature detects a violation.

    Padding Oracle Protection

    Select the name of padding oracle protection rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Defeating cipher padding attacks on individually encrypted inputs.

    Attack log messages contain Padding Oracle Attack when this feature detects a violation.

    CSRF Protection

    Select the name of cross-site request forgery protection rule, if any, to apply to matching requests. For details, see Defeating cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks.

    Available only when Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies is selected.

    HTTP Header Security

    Select the name of HTTP header security policy, if any, to apply to matching responses.

    For details, see HTTP Security Headers.

    Man in the Browser Protection

    Select the name of an MiTB protection rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Protection for Man-in-the-Browser (MiTB) attacks.

    URL Encryption Policy

    Select the name of a URL encryption policy if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see URL encryption.

    SQL/XSS Syntax Based Detection

    Select the name of a SQL/XSS syntax based detection policy if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Syntax-based SQL/XSS injection detection.

    Parameter Validation

    Select the name of the parameter validation rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Validating parameters (“input rules”).

    Attack log messages contain Parameter Validation Violation when this feature detects a parameter rule violation.

    Hidden Fields Protection

    Select the name of the hidden fields protection rule, if any, to use to protect hidden fields on your website. For details, see Preventing tampering with hidden inputs.

    Attack log messages contain Hidden Field Manipulation when this feature detects tampering.

    This option appears only when Configuring a protection profile for inline topologies is enabled.

    File Security

    Select an existing file security policy, if any, that will be applied to matching HTTP requests. For details, see Limiting file uploads.

    Attack log messages contain Illegal File Size when this feature detects an excessively large upload.

    Enable AMF3 Protocol Detection

    Enable to scan requests that use action message format 3.0 (AMF3) for:

    • Cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks
    • SQL injection attacks
    • Common exploits

    and other attack signatures that you have enabled in Signatures.

    AMF3 is a binary format that can be used by Adobe Flash/Flex clients to send input to server-side software.

    Caution: To scan for attacks or enforce input rules on AMF3, you must enable this option. Failure to enable the option will cause the FortiWeb appliance to be unable to scan AMF3 requests for attacks.

    WebSocket Security

    Select the name of a WebSocket security rule, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see WebSocket protocol.

    URL Access

    Select the name of the URL access policy, if any, that will be applied to matching HTTP requests. For details, see Restricting access to specific URLs.

    Attack log messages contain URL Access Violation when this feature detects a URL matched by this policy.

    Allow Method

    Select an existing allow method policy, if any, that will be applied to matching HTTP requests. For details, see Specifying allowed HTTP methods.

    Attack log messages contain HTTP Method Violation when this feature detects a non-allowed HTTP request method.

    CORS Protection Select the name of an existing CORS Protection policy. For details, see Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) protection.

    Bot Mitigation Policy

    Select the name of an existing bot mitigation policy. For details, see Configuring bot mitigation policy.

    XML Protection

    Select the name of an existing XML protection policy. For details, see Configuring XML protection.

    JSON Protection

    Select the name of an existing JSON protection policy. For details, see Configuring JSON protection.

    OpenAPI Protection

    Select the name of an existing OpenAPI protection policy. For details, see OpenAPI Validation.

    API Gateway

    Select the name of an existing API gateway policy. For details, see Configuring API gateway policy.
    DoS Protection Policy Select the name of an existing DoS prevention policy. For details, see Grouping DoS protection rules.

    Mobile Application Identification

    Enable to configure the JWT token secret and token header to verify a request from a mobile application.

    Refer to Approov doc for how to get the token.

    For details, see Configuring mobile API protection.

    Note: You need to enable Mobile Application Identification first from System > Config > Feature Visibility.

    Token Secret

    Enter the token secret that you have got from Approov.

    Available only when Mobile Application Identification is enabled.

    Token Header

    Specify the header where the token is carried.

    Available only when Mobile Application Identification is enabled.

    Mobile API Protection

    Select the name of an existing API protection policy. For details, see Configuring mobile API protection.

    URL Rewriting

    Select the name of a URL rewriting rule set, if any, that will be applied to matching requests.

    For details, see Rewriting & redirecting.

    HTTP Authentication

    Select the name of an authorization policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Offloading HTTP authentication & authorization.

    If the client fails to authenticate, it will receive an HTTP 403 Access Forbidden error message.

    Site Publish Select the name of a site publishing policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Site Publishing (Single sign-on).
    File Compress Select the name of an compression policy, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see Configuring compression offloading.
    IP Reputation Enable to apply IP reputation intelligence. For details, see "blocklisting source IPs with poor reputation" on page 1.
    FortiGate Quarantined IPs

    Enable to detect source IP addresses that a FortiGate unit is currently preventing from interacting with the network and protected systems. Then, select the action that FortiWeb takes if it detects a quarantined IP address:

    • Alert—Accept the request and generate an alert email, log message, or both.
    • Alert & Deny—Block the request and generate an alert, log message, or both.
    • Deny (no log)—Block the request (or reset the connection).

    Note: If FortiWeb is deployed behind a NAT load balancer and this option is enabled, to prevent FortiWeb from blocking all connections when it detects a violation of this type, define an X-header that indicates the original client’s IP. For details, see Defining your proxies, clients, & X-headers.

    In addition, select a severity level and trigger policy.

    For information on configuring communication with the FortiGate that provides the list of quarantined IP addresses, see Receiving quarantined source IP addresses from FortiGate.

    IP List Select the name of a client allow list or block list, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see "blocklisting & allowlisting clients using a source IP or source IP range" on page 1.
    Geo IP Select the name of a geographically-based client block list, if any, that will be applied to matching requests. For details, see "blocklisting & allowlisting countries & regions" on page 1.
    User Tracking Select the name of a user tracking policy, if any, to use for matching requests. For details, see Tracking users.
    Redirect URL

    Type a URL including the FQDN/IP and path, if any, to which a client will be redirected if:

    • Its request violates any of the rules in this profile, and
    • The Action for the rule is set to Redirect.

    For example, you could enter:

    www.example.com/products/

    If you do not enter a URL, depending on the type of violation and the configuration, the FortiWeb appliance will log the violation, may attempt to remove the offending parts, and could either reset the connection or return an HTTP 403 Access Forbidden or 404 File Not Found error message.

    Redirect URL With Reason

    Enable to include the reason for redirection as a parameter in the URL, such as reason747sha=Parameter%20Validation%20Violation, when traffic has been redirected using Redirect URL. The FortiWeb appliance also adds redirect491=1 to the URL to detect and cancel a redirect loop (if the redirect action would otherwise recursively triggers an attack event). FortiWeb will strip these two parameters before it forwards the processed traffic to the back-end servers.

    By default, this option is disabled.

    Caution: If the FortiWeb appliance is protecting a redirect URL, enable this option to prevent infinite redirect loops.

  • To view or modify a component without leaving the page, next to the drop-down menu where you have selected the component, click Detail.

  • Click OK.
  • To apply the inline protection profile, select it in a server policy. For details, see Configuring an HTTP server policy.
  • See also