Fortinet Document Library

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Table of Contents

Administration Guide

Defining your protected/allowed HTTP “Host:” header names

A protected host group (also called “allowed hosts” or “protected host names”, depending on how the host name is used in each context) defines one or more IP addresses or fully qualified domain names (FQDNs). Each entry in the group defines a virtual or real web host, according to the Host: field in the HTTP header of requests. You can use these entries to determine which host names:

  • FortiWeb allows in requests, and/or
  • FortiWeb applies scans or other features to

For example, if your FortiWeb receives requests with HTTP headers, such as:

GET /index.php HTTP/1.1

Host: www.example.com

you might define a protected host group with an entry of www.example.com and select it in Protected Hostnames in the policy. This would block requests that are not for that host.

A protected host names group is usually not the same as a back-end web server. For details, see Protected web servers vs. allowed/protected host names.

You use protected host names in a server policy to restrict requests to specific hostnames. If you want to specify specific hosts to apply a policy to, use the HTTP content routing feature. For details, see Routing based on HTTP content.

Used differently, you might select the www.example.com entry in Host when defining requests where the parameters should be validated. This would apply protection only for that host.

Unlike a web server, which is a single IP at the network layer, a protected host group should contain all network IPs, virtual IPs (VIP), and domain names that clients use to access the web server at the HTTP layer.

For example, clients often access a web server via a public network such as the Internet. Therefore, the protected host group contains public domain names, IP addresses and virtual IPs on a network edge router or firewall, such as:

  • www.example.com and
  • www.example.co.uk and
  • example.de

But in Reverse Proxy mode, the physical or domain server is the IP address or domain name that the FortiWeb appliance uses to forward traffic to the back-end web server behind the NAT and, therefore, is often a private network address:

  • 192.168.1.10 or
  • example.local

As another example, for entry level or virtualized web hosting, many Apache virtual hosts:

  • business.example.cn
  • university.example.cn
  • province.example.cn

may exist on one or more back-end web servers which each have one or more network adapters, each with one or more private network IP addresses that are hidden behind a Reverse Proxy FortiWeb:

  • 172.16.1.5
  • 172.16.1.6
  • 172.16.1.7

The virtual hosts would be added to the list of FortiWeb’s protected host names, while the network adapters’ IP addresses would be added to the list of physical servers.

To configure a protected host group
  1. Go to Server Objects > Protected Hostnames.
    To access this part of the web UI, your administrator’s account access profile must have Read and Write permission to items in the Server Policy Configuration category. For details, see Permissions.
  2. Click Create New.
  3. In Name, type a name that can be referenced by other parts of the configuration. The maximum length is 63 characters.
  4. From the Default Action drop-down menu, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests that do not match any of the host definitions in this protected host group. In For Action, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests whose Host: field matches this Host entry., you can override this default for specific hosts.
    For example, let’s say that you have 10 web hosts protected by FortiWeb. You want to allow 8 and block 2. To do this, first set Default Action to Accept. Then in For Action, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests whose Host: field matches this Host entry., you will create 2 entries for the host names that you want to block, and in their Action, select Deny.
  5. Click OK.
  6. To treat one or more hosts differently than indicated in Default Action, click Create New.
  7. For , enter the IP address or FQDN of a real or virtual host, according to the Host: field in HTTP requests.
    If clients connect to your web servers through the IP address of a virtual server on the FortiWeb appliance, this should be the IP address of that virtual server or any domain name to which it resolves, not the IP address of the protected web server.
    For example, if a virtual server 10.0.2.1/24 forwards traffic to the physical server 192.0.2.1, for protected host names, you would enter:
  • 10.0.2.1, the address of the virtual server
  • www.example.com, the domain name that resolves to the virtual server

Your entry must match the whole host name exactly. Wild cards such as *.example.com are not supported. If you require wild card host name matches, use HTTP Host: header access control rules instead. For details, see Combination access control & rate limiting.

  • For Action, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests whose Host: field matches this Host entry.
  • Click OK.
  • Repeat the previous steps for each host that you want to add to the protected host group.
  • To apply a protected host group, select it in a server policy (see Configuring an HTTP server policy). Policies use protected host definitions to block connections that are not destined for a protected host. If you do not select a protected host group in a server policy, and you do not configure a combination access control rule with an HTTP Host: condition either, FortiWeb accepts or blocks connections regardless of the Host: field.
  • See also

    Defining your protected/allowed HTTP “Host:” header names

    A protected host group (also called “allowed hosts” or “protected host names”, depending on how the host name is used in each context) defines one or more IP addresses or fully qualified domain names (FQDNs). Each entry in the group defines a virtual or real web host, according to the Host: field in the HTTP header of requests. You can use these entries to determine which host names:

    • FortiWeb allows in requests, and/or
    • FortiWeb applies scans or other features to

    For example, if your FortiWeb receives requests with HTTP headers, such as:

    GET /index.php HTTP/1.1

    Host: www.example.com

    you might define a protected host group with an entry of www.example.com and select it in Protected Hostnames in the policy. This would block requests that are not for that host.

    A protected host names group is usually not the same as a back-end web server. For details, see Protected web servers vs. allowed/protected host names.

    You use protected host names in a server policy to restrict requests to specific hostnames. If you want to specify specific hosts to apply a policy to, use the HTTP content routing feature. For details, see Routing based on HTTP content.

    Used differently, you might select the www.example.com entry in Host when defining requests where the parameters should be validated. This would apply protection only for that host.

    Unlike a web server, which is a single IP at the network layer, a protected host group should contain all network IPs, virtual IPs (VIP), and domain names that clients use to access the web server at the HTTP layer.

    For example, clients often access a web server via a public network such as the Internet. Therefore, the protected host group contains public domain names, IP addresses and virtual IPs on a network edge router or firewall, such as:

    • www.example.com and
    • www.example.co.uk and
    • example.de

    But in Reverse Proxy mode, the physical or domain server is the IP address or domain name that the FortiWeb appliance uses to forward traffic to the back-end web server behind the NAT and, therefore, is often a private network address:

    • 192.168.1.10 or
    • example.local

    As another example, for entry level or virtualized web hosting, many Apache virtual hosts:

    • business.example.cn
    • university.example.cn
    • province.example.cn

    may exist on one or more back-end web servers which each have one or more network adapters, each with one or more private network IP addresses that are hidden behind a Reverse Proxy FortiWeb:

    • 172.16.1.5
    • 172.16.1.6
    • 172.16.1.7

    The virtual hosts would be added to the list of FortiWeb’s protected host names, while the network adapters’ IP addresses would be added to the list of physical servers.

    To configure a protected host group
    1. Go to Server Objects > Protected Hostnames.
      To access this part of the web UI, your administrator’s account access profile must have Read and Write permission to items in the Server Policy Configuration category. For details, see Permissions.
    2. Click Create New.
    3. In Name, type a name that can be referenced by other parts of the configuration. The maximum length is 63 characters.
    4. From the Default Action drop-down menu, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests that do not match any of the host definitions in this protected host group. In For Action, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests whose Host: field matches this Host entry., you can override this default for specific hosts.
      For example, let’s say that you have 10 web hosts protected by FortiWeb. You want to allow 8 and block 2. To do this, first set Default Action to Accept. Then in For Action, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests whose Host: field matches this Host entry., you will create 2 entries for the host names that you want to block, and in their Action, select Deny.
    5. Click OK.
    6. To treat one or more hosts differently than indicated in Default Action, click Create New.
    7. For , enter the IP address or FQDN of a real or virtual host, according to the Host: field in HTTP requests.
      If clients connect to your web servers through the IP address of a virtual server on the FortiWeb appliance, this should be the IP address of that virtual server or any domain name to which it resolves, not the IP address of the protected web server.
      For example, if a virtual server 10.0.2.1/24 forwards traffic to the physical server 192.0.2.1, for protected host names, you would enter:
    • 10.0.2.1, the address of the virtual server
    • www.example.com, the domain name that resolves to the virtual server

    Your entry must match the whole host name exactly. Wild cards such as *.example.com are not supported. If you require wild card host name matches, use HTTP Host: header access control rules instead. For details, see Combination access control & rate limiting.

  • For Action, select whether to Accept, Deny, or Deny (no log) HTTP requests whose Host: field matches this Host entry.
  • Click OK.
  • Repeat the previous steps for each host that you want to add to the protected host group.
  • To apply a protected host group, select it in a server policy (see Configuring an HTTP server policy). Policies use protected host definitions to block connections that are not destined for a protected host. If you do not select a protected host group in a server policy, and you do not configure a combination access control rule with an HTTP Host: condition either, FortiWeb accepts or blocks connections regardless of the Host: field.
  • See also