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Table of Contents

Administration Guide

Specifying URLs allowed to initiate sessions

To prevent attackers from exploiting web applications that are vulnerable to state-based attacks, you may need to define legitimate entry points into your web applications.

When you select a start page group in the inline protection profile, clients must begin from a valid start page in order to initiate a valid HTTP session. If they violate this rule, they will wither be logged, blocked, or redirected to one of the valid entry pages (in the web UI, this is called the “default” page).

All web pages in a start page rule must belong to the same website. Start page rules cannot redirect each violation to a different location, depending on which of the rules was violated. If you choose to redirect violations, all violations will be redirected to the same “default” URL.

For example, you may insist that HTTP clients of an e-commerce website begin their session from either the main page, an item view, or login. Clients are not allowed to begin a valid session from the third stage of the shopping cart checkout. If someone initiates a session from partway through the shopping cart checkout, it is likely to be an attack. But just in case it was due to a legitimate client clearing the browser’s cookies or clicking a link or bookmark, FortiWeb could redirect the request to one of the valid start pages.

To configure start page rules
  1. Before you configure a start page rule, if you want to apply it only to HTTP requests for a specific real or virtual host, you must first define the web host in a protected host names group. For details, see Defining your protected/allowed HTTP “Host:” header names.
  2. Go to Web Protection > Access > Start Pages.
    To access this part of the web UI, your administrator’s account access profile must have Read and Write permission to items in the Web Protection Configuration category. For details, see Permissions.
  3. Click Create New.
  4. Configure these settings:
    Name Type a unique name that can be referenced in other parts of the configuration. The maximum length is 63 characters.
    Action

    Select which action the FortiWeb appliance will take when it detects a violation of the rule:

    • Alert—Accept the connection and generate an alert email and/or log message.

    • Alert & Deny—Block the request (or reset the connection) and generate an alert and/or log message.

      You can customize the web page that FortiWeb returns to the client with the HTTP status code. See Customizing error and authentication pages (replacement messages).

    • Deny (no log)—Block the request (or reset the connection).

    • Period Block—Block subsequent requests from the client for a number of seconds. Also configure Block Period.

      You can customize the web page that FortiWeb returns to the client with the HTTP status code. For details, see Customizing error and authentication pages (replacement messages).

      Note: If FortiWeb is deployed behind a NAT load balancer, when using this option, you must also define an X-header that indicates the original client’s IP. Failure to do so may cause FortiWeb to block all connections when it detects a violation of this type. For details, see Defining your proxies, clients, & X-headers.

    • Redirect—Redirect the request to the URL that you specify in the protection profile or URL Pattern and generate an alert and/or log message. Also configure either URL Pattern, or Redirect URL and Redirect URL With Reason.
    • Send 403 Forbidden—Reply with an HTTP 403 Access Forbidden error message and generate an alert and/or log message.

    The default value is Alert.

    Note: This setting will be ignored if Monitor Mode is enabled.

    Note: Logging and/or alert email will occur only if enabled and configured. For details, see Logging and Alert email.

    Block Period

    Type the number of seconds that you want to block subsequent requests from the client after the FortiWeb appliance detects that the client has violated the rule.

    This setting is available only if Action is set to Period Block. The valid range is 1–3,600. The default value is 1. See also Monitoring currently blocked IPs.

    Severity

    When rule violations are recorded in the attack log, each log message contains a Severity Level (severity_level) field. Select which severity level the FortiWeb appliance will use when it logs a violation of the rule:

    • Informative
    • Low
    • Medium
    • High

    The default value is Low.

    Trigger Policy

    Select the trigger, if any, that FortiWeb will use when it logs and/or sends an alert email about a violation of the rule. For details, see Viewing log messages.

  5. Click OK.
  6. Click Create New to add an entry to the set.
  7. Configure these settings:
  8. Host

    Select which protected host names entry (either a web host name or IP address) that the Host: field of the HTTP request must be in to match a valid start page.

    This option is available only if Host Status is enabled.

    Host Status Enable to require that the Host: field of the HTTP request match a protected host names entry in order to match a valid start page. Also configure Host.
    Type

    Select whether URL Pattern is a Simple String (that is, a literal URL such as /index.html) or a Regular Expression.

    Note: If Default is Yes, you must select Simple String and provide the exact redirect/session initiation URL in URL Pattern. A regular expression does not specify a single definite destination, and therefore is not a valid configuration in that case.

    URL Pattern

    Depending on your selection in Type, type either:

    • The literal URL, such as /index.php, that the HTTP request must contain in order to match the start page rule. The URL must begin with a slash ( / ).

      If Default is Yes, the literal URL also indicates the redirect URL and/or session initiation URL.

    • A regular expression, such as ^/*.php, matching all and only the URLs to which the start page rule should apply. The pattern does not require a slash ( / ). However, it must at match URLs that begin with a slash, such as /index.cfm.

    Do not include the domain name, such as www.example.com, which is configured separately in the Host drop-down list.

    To create and test a regular expression, click the >> (test) icon. This opens the Regular Expression Validator window where you can fine-tune the expression. For details, see Regular expression syntax.

    Default

    If Action is Redirect, for requests that either:

    • Do not specify any URL (such as requesting http://www.example.com/ instead of http://www.example.com/index.php), and therefore neither explicitly match nor violate the rule
    • Violate the start page rule (applies only if you have selected Redirect for Action)

    select Yes if you want FortiWeb to redirect the client to this page, indicated in URL Pattern (e.g., This URL will be treated as the website’s default/home page). Otherwise, select No and configure the redirect URL separately from this rule in the protection profile’s Redirect URL.

    To prevent the redirect from having more than one possible destination, only one URL in the start page rule can be configured as the “default” at a given time.

  9. Click OK.
  10. Repeat the previous steps for each start page that you want to add to the group of start pages.
  11. To apply a start page rule:

    Attack log messages contain Start Page Violation when this feature detects a start page violation. Additionally, if the start page rule was configured to redirect the attacker, parameters will be appended to the redirect URL to indicate the reason. e.g.:

    http://example.com/index.html?redirect491=1&reason747sha=Start%20Page%20Violation

    Because the new active appliance does not know previous session history, after an HA failover, for existing sessions, FortiWeb will not be able to apply this feature. It will apply to new sessions as they are formed. For details, see Sessions & FortiWeb HA.
See also

Specifying URLs allowed to initiate sessions

To prevent attackers from exploiting web applications that are vulnerable to state-based attacks, you may need to define legitimate entry points into your web applications.

When you select a start page group in the inline protection profile, clients must begin from a valid start page in order to initiate a valid HTTP session. If they violate this rule, they will wither be logged, blocked, or redirected to one of the valid entry pages (in the web UI, this is called the “default” page).

All web pages in a start page rule must belong to the same website. Start page rules cannot redirect each violation to a different location, depending on which of the rules was violated. If you choose to redirect violations, all violations will be redirected to the same “default” URL.

For example, you may insist that HTTP clients of an e-commerce website begin their session from either the main page, an item view, or login. Clients are not allowed to begin a valid session from the third stage of the shopping cart checkout. If someone initiates a session from partway through the shopping cart checkout, it is likely to be an attack. But just in case it was due to a legitimate client clearing the browser’s cookies or clicking a link or bookmark, FortiWeb could redirect the request to one of the valid start pages.

To configure start page rules
  1. Before you configure a start page rule, if you want to apply it only to HTTP requests for a specific real or virtual host, you must first define the web host in a protected host names group. For details, see Defining your protected/allowed HTTP “Host:” header names.
  2. Go to Web Protection > Access > Start Pages.
    To access this part of the web UI, your administrator’s account access profile must have Read and Write permission to items in the Web Protection Configuration category. For details, see Permissions.
  3. Click Create New.
  4. Configure these settings:
    Name Type a unique name that can be referenced in other parts of the configuration. The maximum length is 63 characters.
    Action

    Select which action the FortiWeb appliance will take when it detects a violation of the rule:

    • Alert—Accept the connection and generate an alert email and/or log message.

    • Alert & Deny—Block the request (or reset the connection) and generate an alert and/or log message.

      You can customize the web page that FortiWeb returns to the client with the HTTP status code. See Customizing error and authentication pages (replacement messages).

    • Deny (no log)—Block the request (or reset the connection).

    • Period Block—Block subsequent requests from the client for a number of seconds. Also configure Block Period.

      You can customize the web page that FortiWeb returns to the client with the HTTP status code. For details, see Customizing error and authentication pages (replacement messages).

      Note: If FortiWeb is deployed behind a NAT load balancer, when using this option, you must also define an X-header that indicates the original client’s IP. Failure to do so may cause FortiWeb to block all connections when it detects a violation of this type. For details, see Defining your proxies, clients, & X-headers.

    • Redirect—Redirect the request to the URL that you specify in the protection profile or URL Pattern and generate an alert and/or log message. Also configure either URL Pattern, or Redirect URL and Redirect URL With Reason.
    • Send 403 Forbidden—Reply with an HTTP 403 Access Forbidden error message and generate an alert and/or log message.

    The default value is Alert.

    Note: This setting will be ignored if Monitor Mode is enabled.

    Note: Logging and/or alert email will occur only if enabled and configured. For details, see Logging and Alert email.

    Block Period

    Type the number of seconds that you want to block subsequent requests from the client after the FortiWeb appliance detects that the client has violated the rule.

    This setting is available only if Action is set to Period Block. The valid range is 1–3,600. The default value is 1. See also Monitoring currently blocked IPs.

    Severity

    When rule violations are recorded in the attack log, each log message contains a Severity Level (severity_level) field. Select which severity level the FortiWeb appliance will use when it logs a violation of the rule:

    • Informative
    • Low
    • Medium
    • High

    The default value is Low.

    Trigger Policy

    Select the trigger, if any, that FortiWeb will use when it logs and/or sends an alert email about a violation of the rule. For details, see Viewing log messages.

  5. Click OK.
  6. Click Create New to add an entry to the set.
  7. Configure these settings:
  8. Host

    Select which protected host names entry (either a web host name or IP address) that the Host: field of the HTTP request must be in to match a valid start page.

    This option is available only if Host Status is enabled.

    Host Status Enable to require that the Host: field of the HTTP request match a protected host names entry in order to match a valid start page. Also configure Host.
    Type

    Select whether URL Pattern is a Simple String (that is, a literal URL such as /index.html) or a Regular Expression.

    Note: If Default is Yes, you must select Simple String and provide the exact redirect/session initiation URL in URL Pattern. A regular expression does not specify a single definite destination, and therefore is not a valid configuration in that case.

    URL Pattern

    Depending on your selection in Type, type either:

    • The literal URL, such as /index.php, that the HTTP request must contain in order to match the start page rule. The URL must begin with a slash ( / ).

      If Default is Yes, the literal URL also indicates the redirect URL and/or session initiation URL.

    • A regular expression, such as ^/*.php, matching all and only the URLs to which the start page rule should apply. The pattern does not require a slash ( / ). However, it must at match URLs that begin with a slash, such as /index.cfm.

    Do not include the domain name, such as www.example.com, which is configured separately in the Host drop-down list.

    To create and test a regular expression, click the >> (test) icon. This opens the Regular Expression Validator window where you can fine-tune the expression. For details, see Regular expression syntax.

    Default

    If Action is Redirect, for requests that either:

    • Do not specify any URL (such as requesting http://www.example.com/ instead of http://www.example.com/index.php), and therefore neither explicitly match nor violate the rule
    • Violate the start page rule (applies only if you have selected Redirect for Action)

    select Yes if you want FortiWeb to redirect the client to this page, indicated in URL Pattern (e.g., This URL will be treated as the website’s default/home page). Otherwise, select No and configure the redirect URL separately from this rule in the protection profile’s Redirect URL.

    To prevent the redirect from having more than one possible destination, only one URL in the start page rule can be configured as the “default” at a given time.

  9. Click OK.
  10. Repeat the previous steps for each start page that you want to add to the group of start pages.
  11. To apply a start page rule:

    Attack log messages contain Start Page Violation when this feature detects a start page violation. Additionally, if the start page rule was configured to redirect the attacker, parameters will be appended to the redirect URL to indicate the reason. e.g.:

    http://example.com/index.html?redirect491=1&reason747sha=Start%20Page%20Violation

    Because the new active appliance does not know previous session history, after an HA failover, for existing sessions, FortiWeb will not be able to apply this feature. It will apply to new sessions as they are formed. For details, see Sessions & FortiWeb HA.
See also