MSTP overview and terminology
MSTP supports multiple spanning tree instances, where each instance carries traffic for one or more VLANs (the mapping of VLANs to instances is configurable).
MSTP is backward-compatible with STP and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP). A layer-2 network can contain switches that are running MSTP, STP, or RSTP.
MSTP is built on RSTP, so it provides fast recovery from network faults and fast convergence times.
A region is a set of interconnected switches that have the same multiple spanning tree (MST) configuration (region name, MST revision number, and VLAN-to-instance mapping). A network can have any number of regions. Regions are independent of each other because the VLAN-to-instance mapping is different in each region.
The FortiSwitch unit supports 15 MST instances in a region. Multiple VLANs can be mapped to each MST instance. Each switch in the region must have the identical mapping of VLANs to instances.
The MST region acts like a single bridge to adjacent MST regions and to non-MST STPs.
Instance 0 is a special instance, called the internal spanning-tree instance (IST). IST is a spanning tree that connects all of the MST switches in a region. All VLANs are assigned to the IST.
IST is the only instance that exchanges bridge protocol data units (BPDUs). The MSTP BPDU contains information for each MSTP instance (captured in an M-record). The M-records are added to the end of a regular RSTP BPDU. This allows MSTP region to inter-operate with an RSTP switch.
The common spanning tree (CST) interconnects the MST regions and all instances of STP or RSTP that are running in the network.
Hop count and message age
MST does not use the BPDU message age within a region. The message-age and maximum-age fields in the BPDU are propagated unchanged within the region.
Within the region, a hop-count mechanism is used to age out the BPDU. The IST root sends out BPDUs with the hop count set to the maximum number of hops. The hop count is decremented each time the BPDU is forwarded. If the hop count reaches zero, the switch discards the BPDU and ages out the information on the receiving port.
STP port roles
STP assigns a port role to each switch port. The role is based on configuration, topology, relative position of the port in the topology, and other considerations. Based on the port role, the port either sends or receives STP BPDUs and forwards or blocks the data traffic. Here is a brief summary of each STP port role:
- Designated—One designated port is elected per link (segment). The designated port is the port closest to the root bridge. This port sends BPDUs on the link (segment) and forwards traffic towards the root bridge. In an STP converged network, each designated port is in the STP forwarding state.
- Root—The bridge can have only one root port. The root port is the port that leads to the root bridge. In an STP converged network, the root port is in the STP forwarding state.
- Alternate—Alternate ports lead to the root bridge but are not root ports. The alternate ports maintain the STP blocking state.
- Backup—This is a special case when two or more ports of the same switch are connected together (either directly or through shared media). In this case, one port is designated, and the remaining ports are backup (in the STP blocking state).
STP loop protection
NOTE: This feature is different from loop guard.
When an STP blocking port in a redundant topology starts to incorrectly forward traffic, a layer-2 forwarding loop might form. You can use STP loop protection to help prevent these STP loops, but they still might be formed in unique cases.
A port remains in blocking state only if it continues to receive BPDU messages. If it stops receiving BPDUs (for example, due to unidirectional link failure), the blocking port (alternate or backup port) becomes designated and transitions to a forwarding state. In a redundant topology, this situation may create a loop.
If the loop-protection feature is enabled on a port, that port is forced to remain in blocking state, even if the port stops receiving BPDU messages. It will not transition to forwarding state and does not forward any user traffic.
The loop-protection feature is enabled on a per-port basis. Fortinet recommends that you enable loop protection on all nondesignated ports (all root, alternate, and backup ports).
STP root guard
Root guard protects the interface on which it is enabled from becoming the path to root. When enabled on an interface, superior BPDUs received on that interface are ignored or dropped. Without using root guard, any switch that participates in STP maintains the ability to reroute the path to root. Rerouting might cause your network to transmit large amounts of traffic across suboptimal links or allow a malicious or misconfigured device to pose a security risk by passing core traffic through an insecure device for packet capture or inspection. By enabling root guard on multiple interfaces, you can create a perimeter around your existing paths to root to enforce the specified network topology.
STP BPDU guard
Similar to root guard, BPDU guard protects the designed network topology. When BPDU guard is enabled on STP edge ports, any BPDUs received cause the ports to go down for a specified number of minutes. The BPDUs are not forwarded, and the network edge is enforced.