VPN security policies
Once you have defined the IP source and destination addresses, the phase 1 authentication parameters, and the phase 2 parameters, you must define the VPN security policies.
FortiGate unit VPNs can be policy-based or route-based. There is little difference between the two types. In both cases, you specify phase 1 and phase 2 settings. However there is a difference in implementation. A route-based VPN creates a virtual IPsec network interface that applies encryption or decryption as needed to any traffic that it carries. That is why route-based VPNs are also known as interface-based VPNs. A policy-based VPN is implemented through a special security policy that applies the encryption you specified in the phase 1 and phase 2 settings.
An IPsec security policy enables the transmission and reception of encrypted packets, specifies the permitted direction of VPN traffic, and selects the VPN tunnel. In most cases, only a single policy is needed to control both inbound and outbound IP traffic through a VPN tunnel.
For a route-based VPN, you create two security policies between the virtual IPsec interface and the interface that connects to the private network. In one policy, the virtual interface is the source. In the other policy, the virtual interface is the destination. The Action for both policies is Accept. This creates bidirectional policies that ensure traffic will flow in both directions over the VPN.
For a policy-based VPN, one security policy enables communication in both directions. You must select IPSEC as the Action and then select the VPN tunnel dynamic object you have mapped to the phase 1 settings. You can then enable inbound and outbound traffic as needed within that policy, or create multiple policies of this type to handle different types of traffic differently. For example HTTPS traffic may not require the same level of scanning as FTP traffic.