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Table of Contents

Administration Guide

Configuring RAID

If your FortiMail model supports RAID, go to System > RAID to configure a redundant array of independent disks (RAID) for the FortiMail hard disks that are used to store logs and email.

Most FortiMail models can be configured to use RAID with their hard disks. The default RAID level should give good results, but you can modify the configuration to suit your individual requirements for enhanced performance and reliability. For more information, see Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers or Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers.

For some FortiMail models, you can configure the RAID levels for the local disk partitions used for storing email files or log files, depending on your requirements for performance, resiliency, and cost.

RAID events can be logged and reported with alert email. These events include disk full and disk failure notices. For more information, see About FortiMail logging, and Configuring alert email.

Note

If your FortiMail model does not support RAID, the RAID menu won’t be displayed.

See also 

About RAID levels

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

About RAID levels

Supported RAID levels vary by FortiMail model.

FortiMail 400B, 400C, and 5002B models use software RAID controllers which support RAID levels 0 or 1. You can configure the log disk with a RAID level that is different from the email disk.

FortiMail 1000D, 2000B, 3000C, 3000D and 4000A models use hardware RAID controllers that require that the log disk and mail disk use the same RAID level.

FortiMail 100C, 200D, and 5001A models do not support RAID.

The available RAID levels depend on the number of hard drives installed in the FortiMail unit and different FortiMail models come with different number of factory-installed hard drives. You can added more hard drives if required. For details, see Replacing a RAID disk.

The following tables describe RAID levels supported by each FortiMail model.

FortiMail supported RAID levels

Number of Installed Hard Drives

Available RAID Levels

Default RAID Level

1

0

0

2

0, 1

1

3

0, 1 + hot spare, 5

5

4

5 + hot spare, 10

10

5

5 + hot spare, 10 + hot spares

10 + hot spares

6

10, 50

10

7 or more

10, 10 + hot spares, 50, 50 + hot spares

50 + hot spares

See also 

Hot spares

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

Hot spares

FortiMail models with a hardware RAID controller have a hot spare RAID option. This feature consists of one or more disks that are pre-installed with the other disks in the unit. The hot spare disk is idle until an active hard disk in the RAID fails. Then the RAID immediately puts the hot spare disk into service and starts to rebuild the data from the failed disk onto it. This rebuilding may take up to several hours depending on system load and amount of data stored on the RAID, but the RAID continues without interruption during the process.

The hot spare feature has one or more extra hard disks installed with the RAID. A RAID 10 configuration requires two disks per RAID 1, and has only one hot spare disk. A RAID 50 configuration requires three disks per RAID 5, and can have up to two hot spare disks.

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers

To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:

  • Domain must be System
  • access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category

For details, see About administrator account permissions and domains.

To view and configure RAID levels
  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. GUI item

    Description

    Device

    Displays the name of the RAID unit. This indicates whether it is used for log message data or for mailboxes, mail queues, and other email-related data. This is hard-coded and not configurable.

    Unit

    Displays the internal mount point of the RAID unit. This is hard-coded and not configurable.

    Level

    Displays the RAID level that indicates whether it is configured for optimal speed, failure tolerance, or both. For more information on RAID levels, see About RAID levels.

    Resync Action

    Displays the status of the RAID device.

    • idle: The RAID is idle, with no data being written to or read from the RAID disks.
    • dirty: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to disk.
    • clean: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit.
    • errors: Errors were detected on the RAID unit.
    • no-errors: No errors were detected on the RAID unit.
    • dirty no-errors: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit, and there are currently no detected RAID errors. For a FortiMail unit in active use, this is the expected setting.
    • clean no-errors: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit, and there are currently no RAID errors. For a FortiMail unit with an unmounted array that is not in active use, this is the expected setting.

    Resync Status

    If the RAID unit is not synchronized and you have clicked Click here to check array to cause it to rebuild itself, such as after a hard disk is replaced in the RAID unit, a progress bar indicates rebuild progress.

    The progress bar appears only when Click here to check array has been clicked and the status of the RAID is not clean no-errors.

    Speed

    Displays the average speed in kilobytes (KB) per second of the data transfer for the resynchronization. This is affected by the disk being in use during the resynchronization.

    Apply

    (button)

    Click to save changes.

    Refresh

    (button)

    Click to manually initiate the tab’s display to refresh itself with current information.

    ID/Port

    Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID controller.

    Part of Unit

    Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.

    To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a RAID unit.

    Status

    Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.

    Size

    Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).

    Delete

    (button)

    Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.

    After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.

     

    Caution

    Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more information on creating a backup, see Backup and restore.

  3. In the Level column, click the row corresponding to the RAID device whose RAID level you want to change.
  4. The Level field changes to a drop-down menu.

  5. Select RAID level 0 or 1.
  6. Click Apply.
  7. A warning message appears.

  8. Click Yes to confirm the change.
  9. The FortiMail unit changes the RAID level and reboots.

    The new hard disk will appear in the Device Details section.

See also

About RAID levels

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:

  • Domain must be System
  • access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category

For details, see About administrator account permissions and domains.

To configure RAID
  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.

GUI item

Description

Model

Displays the model of the hardware RAID controller.

Driver

Displays the version of the RAID controller’s driver software.

Firmware

Displays the version of the RAID controller’s firmware.

Set RAID level

Select the RAID level, then click Change.

For more information about RAID levels, see About RAID levels.

Change

(button)

Select the RAID style, then click this button to apply the RAID level.

Re-scan

(button)

Click to rebuild the RAID unit with disks that are currently a member of it, or detect newly added hard disks, and start a diagnostic check. The progress is displayed in the Resync Status section.

List of RAID units in the array

Unit

Indicates the identifier of the RAID unit, such as u0.

Type

Indicates the RAID level currently in use.

For more information, see About RAID levels. To change the RAID level, use Set RAID level.

Status

Indicates the status of the RAID unit.

  • OK: The RAID unit is operating normally.
  • Warning: The RAID controller is currently performing a background task (rebuilding, migrating, or initializing the RAID unit).
    Caution: Do not remove hard disks while this status is displayed. Removing active hard disks can cause hardware damage.
  • Error: The RAID unit is degraded or inoperable. Causes vary, such as when too many hard disks in the unit fail and the RAID unit no longer has the minimum number of disks required to operate in your selected RAID level. To correct such a situation, replace the failed hard disks.
  • No Units: No RAID units are available.

Note: If both Error and Warning conditions exist, the status appears as Error.

Size

Indicates the total disk space, in gigabytes (GB), available for the RAID unit.

Available space varies by your RAID level selection. Due to some space being consumed to store data required by RAID, available storage space will not equal the sum of the capacities of hard disks in the unit.

Ignore ECC

Click turn on to ignore the Error Correcting Code (ECC). This option is off by default.

Ignoring the ECC can speed up building the RAID, but the RAID will not be as fault-tolerant.

This option is not available on FortiMail-2000B/3000C models.

List of hard disks in the array

ID/Port

Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID controller.

Part of Unit

Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.

To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a RAID unit.

Status

Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.

  • OK: The hard disk is operating normally.
  • UNKNOWN: The viability of the hard disk is not known. Causes vary, such as the hard disk not being a member of a RAID unit. In such a case, the RAID controller does not monitor its current status.

Size

Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).

Delete

(button)

Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.

After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.

To change RAID levels
Note

Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more information on creating a backup, see Backup and restore.

  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. From Set RAID level, select a RAID level.
  3. Click Change.

The FortiMail unit changes the RAID level and reboots.

Replacing a RAID disk

When replacing a disk in the RAID array, the new disk must have the same or greater storage capacity than the existing disks in the array. If the new disk has a larger capacity than the other disks in the array, only the amount equal to the smallest hard disk will be used. For example, if the RAID has 400 GB disks, and you replace one with a 500 GB disk, to be consistent with the other disks, only 400 GB of the new disk will be used.

FortiMail units support hot swap; shutting down the FortiMail unit during hard disk replacement is not required.

To replace a disk in the array
  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. In the row corresponding to the hard disk that you want to replace (for example, p4), select the hard disk and click Delete.
  3. The RAID controller removes the hard disk from the list.

  4. Protect the FortiMail unit from static electricity by using measures such as applying an antistatic wrist strap.
  5. Physically remove the hard disk that corresponds to the one you removed in the web UI from its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.
  6. On a FortiMail-2000A or FortiMail-4000A, press in the tab, then pull the drive handle to remove the dive. On a FortiMail-2000B or FortiMail-3000C, press the button to eject the drive.

    On a FortiMail-4000, using a screw driver, turn the handle lock so it is horizontal. Push the blue latch towards the right side and pull the drive handle to remove the drive.

    To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000A, refer to the following diagram.

    Drive 1 (p0)

    Drive 4 (p3)

    Drive 2 (p1)

    Drive 5 (p4)

    Drive 3 (p2)

    Drive 6 (p5)

    To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000B or 3000C, refer to the following diagram.

    Drive 1 (p0)

    Drive 3 (p2)

    Drive 5 (p4)

    Drive 2 (p1)

    Drive 4 (p3)

    Drive 6 (p5)

    To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-4000A, look for the failed disk (Disk drive locations vary by the RAID controller model).

  7. Replace the hard disk with a new hard disk, inserting it into its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.
  8. Click Re-scan.
  9. The RAID controller will scan for available hard disks and should locate the new hard disk. Depending on the RAID level, the FortiMail unit may either automatically add the new hard disk to the RAID unit or allocate it as a spare that will be automatically added to the array if one of the hard disks in the array fails.

    The FortiMail unit rebuilds the RAID array with the new hard disk. Time required varies by the size of the array.

See also

About RAID levels

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers

Configuring RAID

If your FortiMail model supports RAID, go to System > RAID to configure a redundant array of independent disks (RAID) for the FortiMail hard disks that are used to store logs and email.

Most FortiMail models can be configured to use RAID with their hard disks. The default RAID level should give good results, but you can modify the configuration to suit your individual requirements for enhanced performance and reliability. For more information, see Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers or Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers.

For some FortiMail models, you can configure the RAID levels for the local disk partitions used for storing email files or log files, depending on your requirements for performance, resiliency, and cost.

RAID events can be logged and reported with alert email. These events include disk full and disk failure notices. For more information, see About FortiMail logging, and Configuring alert email.

Note

If your FortiMail model does not support RAID, the RAID menu won’t be displayed.

See also 

About RAID levels

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

About RAID levels

Supported RAID levels vary by FortiMail model.

FortiMail 400B, 400C, and 5002B models use software RAID controllers which support RAID levels 0 or 1. You can configure the log disk with a RAID level that is different from the email disk.

FortiMail 1000D, 2000B, 3000C, 3000D and 4000A models use hardware RAID controllers that require that the log disk and mail disk use the same RAID level.

FortiMail 100C, 200D, and 5001A models do not support RAID.

The available RAID levels depend on the number of hard drives installed in the FortiMail unit and different FortiMail models come with different number of factory-installed hard drives. You can added more hard drives if required. For details, see Replacing a RAID disk.

The following tables describe RAID levels supported by each FortiMail model.

FortiMail supported RAID levels

Number of Installed Hard Drives

Available RAID Levels

Default RAID Level

1

0

0

2

0, 1

1

3

0, 1 + hot spare, 5

5

4

5 + hot spare, 10

10

5

5 + hot spare, 10 + hot spares

10 + hot spares

6

10, 50

10

7 or more

10, 10 + hot spares, 50, 50 + hot spares

50 + hot spares

See also 

Hot spares

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

Hot spares

FortiMail models with a hardware RAID controller have a hot spare RAID option. This feature consists of one or more disks that are pre-installed with the other disks in the unit. The hot spare disk is idle until an active hard disk in the RAID fails. Then the RAID immediately puts the hot spare disk into service and starts to rebuild the data from the failed disk onto it. This rebuilding may take up to several hours depending on system load and amount of data stored on the RAID, but the RAID continues without interruption during the process.

The hot spare feature has one or more extra hard disks installed with the RAID. A RAID 10 configuration requires two disks per RAID 1, and has only one hot spare disk. A RAID 50 configuration requires three disks per RAID 5, and can have up to two hot spare disks.

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers

To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:

  • Domain must be System
  • access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category

For details, see About administrator account permissions and domains.

To view and configure RAID levels
  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. GUI item

    Description

    Device

    Displays the name of the RAID unit. This indicates whether it is used for log message data or for mailboxes, mail queues, and other email-related data. This is hard-coded and not configurable.

    Unit

    Displays the internal mount point of the RAID unit. This is hard-coded and not configurable.

    Level

    Displays the RAID level that indicates whether it is configured for optimal speed, failure tolerance, or both. For more information on RAID levels, see About RAID levels.

    Resync Action

    Displays the status of the RAID device.

    • idle: The RAID is idle, with no data being written to or read from the RAID disks.
    • dirty: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to disk.
    • clean: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit.
    • errors: Errors were detected on the RAID unit.
    • no-errors: No errors were detected on the RAID unit.
    • dirty no-errors: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit, and there are currently no detected RAID errors. For a FortiMail unit in active use, this is the expected setting.
    • clean no-errors: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit, and there are currently no RAID errors. For a FortiMail unit with an unmounted array that is not in active use, this is the expected setting.

    Resync Status

    If the RAID unit is not synchronized and you have clicked Click here to check array to cause it to rebuild itself, such as after a hard disk is replaced in the RAID unit, a progress bar indicates rebuild progress.

    The progress bar appears only when Click here to check array has been clicked and the status of the RAID is not clean no-errors.

    Speed

    Displays the average speed in kilobytes (KB) per second of the data transfer for the resynchronization. This is affected by the disk being in use during the resynchronization.

    Apply

    (button)

    Click to save changes.

    Refresh

    (button)

    Click to manually initiate the tab’s display to refresh itself with current information.

    ID/Port

    Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID controller.

    Part of Unit

    Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.

    To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a RAID unit.

    Status

    Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.

    Size

    Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).

    Delete

    (button)

    Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.

    After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.

     

    Caution

    Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more information on creating a backup, see Backup and restore.

  3. In the Level column, click the row corresponding to the RAID device whose RAID level you want to change.
  4. The Level field changes to a drop-down menu.

  5. Select RAID level 0 or 1.
  6. Click Apply.
  7. A warning message appears.

  8. Click Yes to confirm the change.
  9. The FortiMail unit changes the RAID level and reboots.

    The new hard disk will appear in the Device Details section.

See also

About RAID levels

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers

To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:

  • Domain must be System
  • access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category

For details, see About administrator account permissions and domains.

To configure RAID
  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.

GUI item

Description

Model

Displays the model of the hardware RAID controller.

Driver

Displays the version of the RAID controller’s driver software.

Firmware

Displays the version of the RAID controller’s firmware.

Set RAID level

Select the RAID level, then click Change.

For more information about RAID levels, see About RAID levels.

Change

(button)

Select the RAID style, then click this button to apply the RAID level.

Re-scan

(button)

Click to rebuild the RAID unit with disks that are currently a member of it, or detect newly added hard disks, and start a diagnostic check. The progress is displayed in the Resync Status section.

List of RAID units in the array

Unit

Indicates the identifier of the RAID unit, such as u0.

Type

Indicates the RAID level currently in use.

For more information, see About RAID levels. To change the RAID level, use Set RAID level.

Status

Indicates the status of the RAID unit.

  • OK: The RAID unit is operating normally.
  • Warning: The RAID controller is currently performing a background task (rebuilding, migrating, or initializing the RAID unit).
    Caution: Do not remove hard disks while this status is displayed. Removing active hard disks can cause hardware damage.
  • Error: The RAID unit is degraded or inoperable. Causes vary, such as when too many hard disks in the unit fail and the RAID unit no longer has the minimum number of disks required to operate in your selected RAID level. To correct such a situation, replace the failed hard disks.
  • No Units: No RAID units are available.

Note: If both Error and Warning conditions exist, the status appears as Error.

Size

Indicates the total disk space, in gigabytes (GB), available for the RAID unit.

Available space varies by your RAID level selection. Due to some space being consumed to store data required by RAID, available storage space will not equal the sum of the capacities of hard disks in the unit.

Ignore ECC

Click turn on to ignore the Error Correcting Code (ECC). This option is off by default.

Ignoring the ECC can speed up building the RAID, but the RAID will not be as fault-tolerant.

This option is not available on FortiMail-2000B/3000C models.

List of hard disks in the array

ID/Port

Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID controller.

Part of Unit

Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.

To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a RAID unit.

Status

Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.

  • OK: The hard disk is operating normally.
  • UNKNOWN: The viability of the hard disk is not known. Causes vary, such as the hard disk not being a member of a RAID unit. In such a case, the RAID controller does not monitor its current status.

Size

Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).

Delete

(button)

Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.

After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.

To change RAID levels
Note

Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more information on creating a backup, see Backup and restore.

  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. From Set RAID level, select a RAID level.
  3. Click Change.

The FortiMail unit changes the RAID level and reboots.

Replacing a RAID disk

When replacing a disk in the RAID array, the new disk must have the same or greater storage capacity than the existing disks in the array. If the new disk has a larger capacity than the other disks in the array, only the amount equal to the smallest hard disk will be used. For example, if the RAID has 400 GB disks, and you replace one with a 500 GB disk, to be consistent with the other disks, only 400 GB of the new disk will be used.

FortiMail units support hot swap; shutting down the FortiMail unit during hard disk replacement is not required.

To replace a disk in the array
  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. In the row corresponding to the hard disk that you want to replace (for example, p4), select the hard disk and click Delete.
  3. The RAID controller removes the hard disk from the list.

  4. Protect the FortiMail unit from static electricity by using measures such as applying an antistatic wrist strap.
  5. Physically remove the hard disk that corresponds to the one you removed in the web UI from its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.
  6. On a FortiMail-2000A or FortiMail-4000A, press in the tab, then pull the drive handle to remove the dive. On a FortiMail-2000B or FortiMail-3000C, press the button to eject the drive.

    On a FortiMail-4000, using a screw driver, turn the handle lock so it is horizontal. Push the blue latch towards the right side and pull the drive handle to remove the drive.

    To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000A, refer to the following diagram.

    Drive 1 (p0)

    Drive 4 (p3)

    Drive 2 (p1)

    Drive 5 (p4)

    Drive 3 (p2)

    Drive 6 (p5)

    To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000B or 3000C, refer to the following diagram.

    Drive 1 (p0)

    Drive 3 (p2)

    Drive 5 (p4)

    Drive 2 (p1)

    Drive 4 (p3)

    Drive 6 (p5)

    To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-4000A, look for the failed disk (Disk drive locations vary by the RAID controller model).

  7. Replace the hard disk with a new hard disk, inserting it into its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.
  8. Click Re-scan.
  9. The RAID controller will scan for available hard disks and should locate the new hard disk. Depending on the RAID level, the FortiMail unit may either automatically add the new hard disk to the RAID unit or allocate it as a spare that will be automatically added to the array if one of the hard disks in the array fails.

    The FortiMail unit rebuilds the RAID array with the new hard disk. Time required varies by the size of the array.

See also

About RAID levels

Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers