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Table of Contents

FortiOS Carrier

GTP protocol anomaly detection

The FortiOS Carrier firewall detects and optionally drops protocol anomalies according to GTP standards and specific tunnel states. Protocol anomaly attacks involve malformed or corrupt packets that typically fall outside of protocol specifications. These packets are not seen on a production network. Protocol anomaly attacks exploit poor programming practices when decoding packets, and are typically used to maliciously impair system performance or elevate privileges.

FortiOS Carrier also detects IP address spoofing inside GTP data channel.

By default, any GTP profile blocks traffic when the following GTP anomalies are detected:

  • Invalid Reserved Field
  • Reserved IE
  • Miss Mandatory IE
  • Out of State Message
  • Out of State IE
  • Spoofed Source Address

GTP protocol anomaly attacks involve malformed or corrupt packets that typically fall outside of the protocol specifications. If one of these anomalies is detected, the affected packet is blocked.

In a GTP profile, you can use the following options to deny or allow these anomalies. All are set to deny by default:

config firewall gtp

edit <name>

set invalid-reserved-field {allow | deny}

set reserved-ie {allow | deny}

set miss-must-ie {allow | deny}

set out-of-state-message {allow | deny}

set out-of-state-ie {allow | deny}

set spoof-src-addr {allow | deny}

end

Anomaly

Description

invalid-reserved-field On the GUI: Invalid Reserved Field. GTP version 0 (GSM 09.60) headers specify a number of fields that are marked as Spare and contain all ones (1). GTP packets that have different values in these fields are flagged as anomalies. GTP version 1 (GSM 29.060) makes better use of the header space and only has one, 1-bit, reserved field. In the first octet of the GTP version1 header, bit 4 is set to zero.
reserved-ie On the GUI: Reserved IE. Both versions of GTP allow up to 255 different Information Elements (IE). However, a number of Information Elements values are undefined or reserved. Packets with reserved or undefined values will be filtered.
miss-mandatory-ie On the GUI: Miss Mandatory IE. GTP packets with missing mandatory Information Elements (IE) will not be passed to the GGSN/PGW.
out-of-state-message On the GUI: Out of State Message. The GTP protocol requires a certain level of state to be kept by both the GGSN and SGSN or the SGW and PGW. Some message types can only be sent when in a specific GTP state. Packets that do not make sense in the current state are filtered or rejected

Both versions of GTP allow up to 255 different message types. However, a number of message type values are undefined or reserved.

Best practices dictate that packets with reserved or undefined values will be filtered.
out-of-state-ie On the GUI: Out of State IE. GTP Packets with out of order Information Elements are discarded.
spoofed-source-addr On the GUI: Spoofed Source Address. The End User Address Information Element in the PDP Context Create & Response messages or in SGW and PGW sessions contains the address that the mobile station (MS) will use on the remote network. If the MS does not have an address, the SGSN will set the End User Address field to zero when sending the initial PDP Context Create or Create Session Request message. The PDP Context Response packet or create session response packet from the GGSN will then contain an address to be assigned to the MS. In environments where static addresses are allowed, the MS will relay its address to the SGSN, which will include the address in the PDP Context Create or Create Session Request Message. If this option is set to deny, as the MS address is negotiated, any packets originating from the MS that contain a different source address are detected and dropped.

GTP protocol anomaly detection

The FortiOS Carrier firewall detects and optionally drops protocol anomalies according to GTP standards and specific tunnel states. Protocol anomaly attacks involve malformed or corrupt packets that typically fall outside of protocol specifications. These packets are not seen on a production network. Protocol anomaly attacks exploit poor programming practices when decoding packets, and are typically used to maliciously impair system performance or elevate privileges.

FortiOS Carrier also detects IP address spoofing inside GTP data channel.

By default, any GTP profile blocks traffic when the following GTP anomalies are detected:

  • Invalid Reserved Field
  • Reserved IE
  • Miss Mandatory IE
  • Out of State Message
  • Out of State IE
  • Spoofed Source Address

GTP protocol anomaly attacks involve malformed or corrupt packets that typically fall outside of the protocol specifications. If one of these anomalies is detected, the affected packet is blocked.

In a GTP profile, you can use the following options to deny or allow these anomalies. All are set to deny by default:

config firewall gtp

edit <name>

set invalid-reserved-field {allow | deny}

set reserved-ie {allow | deny}

set miss-must-ie {allow | deny}

set out-of-state-message {allow | deny}

set out-of-state-ie {allow | deny}

set spoof-src-addr {allow | deny}

end

Anomaly

Description

invalid-reserved-field On the GUI: Invalid Reserved Field. GTP version 0 (GSM 09.60) headers specify a number of fields that are marked as Spare and contain all ones (1). GTP packets that have different values in these fields are flagged as anomalies. GTP version 1 (GSM 29.060) makes better use of the header space and only has one, 1-bit, reserved field. In the first octet of the GTP version1 header, bit 4 is set to zero.
reserved-ie On the GUI: Reserved IE. Both versions of GTP allow up to 255 different Information Elements (IE). However, a number of Information Elements values are undefined or reserved. Packets with reserved or undefined values will be filtered.
miss-mandatory-ie On the GUI: Miss Mandatory IE. GTP packets with missing mandatory Information Elements (IE) will not be passed to the GGSN/PGW.
out-of-state-message On the GUI: Out of State Message. The GTP protocol requires a certain level of state to be kept by both the GGSN and SGSN or the SGW and PGW. Some message types can only be sent when in a specific GTP state. Packets that do not make sense in the current state are filtered or rejected

Both versions of GTP allow up to 255 different message types. However, a number of message type values are undefined or reserved.

Best practices dictate that packets with reserved or undefined values will be filtered.
out-of-state-ie On the GUI: Out of State IE. GTP Packets with out of order Information Elements are discarded.
spoofed-source-addr On the GUI: Spoofed Source Address. The End User Address Information Element in the PDP Context Create & Response messages or in SGW and PGW sessions contains the address that the mobile station (MS) will use on the remote network. If the MS does not have an address, the SGSN will set the End User Address field to zero when sending the initial PDP Context Create or Create Session Request message. The PDP Context Response packet or create session response packet from the GGSN will then contain an address to be assigned to the MS. In environments where static addresses are allowed, the MS will relay its address to the SGSN, which will include the address in the PDP Context Create or Create Session Request Message. If this option is set to deny, as the MS address is negotiated, any packets originating from the MS that contain a different source address are detected and dropped.