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Multiple members per SD-WAN neighbor configuration

SD-WAN BGP neighbor configurations are used to define the SLA health check in which an SD-WAN member must meet to qualify as being up. When the SD-WAN member meets the SLA threshold, the FortiGate will apply the route map defined in the BGP neighbor's route-map-out-preferable option. If the SD-WAN member fails to meet the SLA, the FortiGate will apply the route map defined in the BGP neighbor's route-map-out option instead. This allows the FortiGate to advertise the health of the SD-WAN member to its BGP neighbor by advertising different community strings based on its SLA status.

Note

For more information, refer to the following BGP examples in the FortiOS Administration Guide: Controlling traffic with BGP route mapping and service rules and Applying BGP route-map to multiple BGP neighbors.

In this enhancement, instead of selecting only one SD-WAN member per neighbor, multiple SD-WAN members can be selected. This allows the SD-WAN neighbor feature to support topologies where there are multiple SD-WAN overlays and/or underlays to a neighbor. The minimum-sla-meet-members option is used to configure the minimum number of members that must be in an SLA per neighbor for the preferable route map to be used.

config system sdwan
    config neighbor
        edit <ip>
            set member {<seq-num_1>} [<seq-num_2>] ... [<seq-num_n>]
            set minimum-sla-meet-members <integer>
        next
    end
end

member {<seq-num_1>} [<seq-num_2>] ... [<seq-num_n>]

Enter the member sequence number list. Multiple members can be defined.

minimum-sla-meet-members <integer>

Set the minimum number of members that meet SLA when the neighbor is preferred (1 - 255, default = 1).

  • If the number of in SLA members is less than the minimum-sla-meet-members value, the default route map will be used.
  • If the number of in SLA members is equal or larger than the minimum-sla-meet-members value, the preferable route map will be used.

Example

In the following example, the spoke FortiGate has four tunnels: two tunnels to Hub_1 and two tunnels to Hub_2. The spoke has two BGP neighbors: one to Hub_1 and one to Hub-2. BGP neighbors are established on loopback IPs.

The SD-WAN neighbor plus route-map-out-preferableconfiguration is deployed on the spoke to achieve the following:

  • If any tunnel to Hub_1 or Hub_2 is in SLA, the preferable route map will be applied on the BGP neighbor to Hub_1 or Hub_2.
  • If both tunnels to Hub_1 or Hub_2 are out of SLA, the default route map will be applied on the BGP neighbor to Hub_1 or Hub_2.

The preferable route map and default route map are used to set different custom BGP communities as the spoke advertises its LAN routes to the hub. Each hub can translate communities into different BGP MED or AS prepends and signal them to the external peers to manipulate inbound traffic, thereby routing traffic to the spoke only when the SLAs are met on at least one of two VPN overlays. In this example, community string 10:1 signals to the neighbor that SLAs are met, and 10:2 signals that SLAs are not met.

To configure the BGP route maps and neighbors:
  1. Configure an access list of prefixes to be matched:
    config router access-list
        edit "net10"
            config rule
                edit 1
                    set prefix 10.0.3.0 255.255.255.0
                next
            end
        next
    end
  2. Configure route maps for neighbors in SLA (preferable) and out of SLA (default):
    config router route-map
        edit "in_sla"
            config rule
                edit 1
                    set match-ip-address "net10"
                    set set-community "10:1"
                next
            end
        next
        edit "out_sla"
            config rule
                edit 1
                    set match-ip-address "net10"
                    set set-community "10:2"
                next
            end
        next
    end
  3. Configure the BGP neighbors:
    config router bgp
        set router-id 172.31.0.65
        config neighbor
            edit "172.31.0.1"
                set route-map-out "out_sla"
                set route-map-out-preferable "in_sla"
                set update-source "Loopback0"
            next
            edit "172.31.0.2"
                set route-map-out "out_sla"
                set route-map-out-preferable "in_sla"
                set update-source "Loopback0"
            next
        end
        config network
            edit 1
                set prefix 10.0.3.0 255.255.255.0
            next
        end
    end
To configure SD-WAN:
  1. Configure the SD-WAN members:
    config system sdwan
        set status enable
        config members
            edit 1
                set interface "H1_T11"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
            edit 4
                set interface "H1_T22"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
            edit 6
                set interface "H2_T11"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
            edit 9
                set interface "H2_T22"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
        end
    end
  2. Configure the health check that must be met:
    config system sdwan
        config health-check
            edit "HUB"
                set server "172.31.100.100"
                set members 0
                config sla
                    edit 1
                        set link-cost-factor latency
                        set latency-threshold 100
                    next
                end
            next
        end
    end
  3. Configure the SD-WAN neighbors:
    config system sdwan
        config neighbor
            edit "172.31.0.1"
                set member 1 4
                set health-check "HUB"
                set sla-id 1
                set minimum-sla-meet-members 1
            next
            edit "172.31.0.2"                                                    
                set member 6 9
                set health-check "HUB"
                set sla-id 1
                set minimum-sla-meet-members 1
            next
        end
    end
To verify that when two members to Hub_1/Hub_2 are in SLA, the preferable route map is be applied on BGP neighbors to Hub_1/Hub_2:
Branch1_A_FGT (root) # diagnose sys sdwan health-check
Health Check(HUB):
Seq(1 H1_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.209), jitter(0.017), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999999), bandwidth-bi(1999998) sla_map=0x1
Seq(4 H1_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.171), jitter(0.004), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x1
Seq(6 H2_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.175), jitter(0.014), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999999), bandwidth-bi(1999998) sla_map=0x1
Seq(9 H2_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.176), jitter(0.019), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x1
# diagnose sys sdwan neighbor
Neighbor(172.31.0.1): member(1 4 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Neighbor(172.31.0.2): member(6 9 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive

On Hub_1 and Hub_2, the expected communities have been attached into the spoke's LAN route:

Hub_1_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24                     
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1                                                            
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:38:29 2021
Hub_2_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24                        
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1                                                                            
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:43:10 2021

If one member for each neighbor becomes out of SLA, the preferable route map is still applied:

Branch1_A_FGT (root) # diagnose sys sdwan health-check
Health Check(HUB):
Seq(1 H1_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.207), jitter(0.018), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x0 
Seq(4 H1_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.182), jitter(0.008), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x1
Seq(6 H2_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.102), jitter(0.009), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x0
Seq(9 H2_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.176), jitter(0.009), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x1
# diagnose sys sdwan neighbor
Neighbor(172.31.0.1): member(1 4 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Neighbor(172.31.0.2): member(6 9 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Hub_1_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1
      Last update: Thu Dec 30 10:44:47 2021
Hub_2_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:43:10 2021

If both members for Hub_1 become out of SLA, the default route map is applied:

Branch1_A_FGT (root) # diagnose sys sdwan health-check
Health Check(HUB):
Seq(1 H1_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.194), jitter(0.018), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x0
Seq(4 H1_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.167), jitter(0.006), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x0
Seq(6 H2_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.180), jitter(0.012), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x0
Seq(9 H2_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.170), jitter(0.005), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x1
# diagnose sys sdwan  neighbor
Neighbor(172.31.0.1): member(1 4 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-fail alive
Neighbor(172.31.0.2): member(6 9 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Hub_1_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:2
      Last update: Thu Dec 30 10:57:33 2021
Hub_2_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:43:10 2021

Multiple members per SD-WAN neighbor configuration

SD-WAN BGP neighbor configurations are used to define the SLA health check in which an SD-WAN member must meet to qualify as being up. When the SD-WAN member meets the SLA threshold, the FortiGate will apply the route map defined in the BGP neighbor's route-map-out-preferable option. If the SD-WAN member fails to meet the SLA, the FortiGate will apply the route map defined in the BGP neighbor's route-map-out option instead. This allows the FortiGate to advertise the health of the SD-WAN member to its BGP neighbor by advertising different community strings based on its SLA status.

Note

For more information, refer to the following BGP examples in the FortiOS Administration Guide: Controlling traffic with BGP route mapping and service rules and Applying BGP route-map to multiple BGP neighbors.

In this enhancement, instead of selecting only one SD-WAN member per neighbor, multiple SD-WAN members can be selected. This allows the SD-WAN neighbor feature to support topologies where there are multiple SD-WAN overlays and/or underlays to a neighbor. The minimum-sla-meet-members option is used to configure the minimum number of members that must be in an SLA per neighbor for the preferable route map to be used.

config system sdwan
    config neighbor
        edit <ip>
            set member {<seq-num_1>} [<seq-num_2>] ... [<seq-num_n>]
            set minimum-sla-meet-members <integer>
        next
    end
end

member {<seq-num_1>} [<seq-num_2>] ... [<seq-num_n>]

Enter the member sequence number list. Multiple members can be defined.

minimum-sla-meet-members <integer>

Set the minimum number of members that meet SLA when the neighbor is preferred (1 - 255, default = 1).

  • If the number of in SLA members is less than the minimum-sla-meet-members value, the default route map will be used.
  • If the number of in SLA members is equal or larger than the minimum-sla-meet-members value, the preferable route map will be used.

Example

In the following example, the spoke FortiGate has four tunnels: two tunnels to Hub_1 and two tunnels to Hub_2. The spoke has two BGP neighbors: one to Hub_1 and one to Hub-2. BGP neighbors are established on loopback IPs.

The SD-WAN neighbor plus route-map-out-preferableconfiguration is deployed on the spoke to achieve the following:

  • If any tunnel to Hub_1 or Hub_2 is in SLA, the preferable route map will be applied on the BGP neighbor to Hub_1 or Hub_2.
  • If both tunnels to Hub_1 or Hub_2 are out of SLA, the default route map will be applied on the BGP neighbor to Hub_1 or Hub_2.

The preferable route map and default route map are used to set different custom BGP communities as the spoke advertises its LAN routes to the hub. Each hub can translate communities into different BGP MED or AS prepends and signal them to the external peers to manipulate inbound traffic, thereby routing traffic to the spoke only when the SLAs are met on at least one of two VPN overlays. In this example, community string 10:1 signals to the neighbor that SLAs are met, and 10:2 signals that SLAs are not met.

To configure the BGP route maps and neighbors:
  1. Configure an access list of prefixes to be matched:
    config router access-list
        edit "net10"
            config rule
                edit 1
                    set prefix 10.0.3.0 255.255.255.0
                next
            end
        next
    end
  2. Configure route maps for neighbors in SLA (preferable) and out of SLA (default):
    config router route-map
        edit "in_sla"
            config rule
                edit 1
                    set match-ip-address "net10"
                    set set-community "10:1"
                next
            end
        next
        edit "out_sla"
            config rule
                edit 1
                    set match-ip-address "net10"
                    set set-community "10:2"
                next
            end
        next
    end
  3. Configure the BGP neighbors:
    config router bgp
        set router-id 172.31.0.65
        config neighbor
            edit "172.31.0.1"
                set route-map-out "out_sla"
                set route-map-out-preferable "in_sla"
                set update-source "Loopback0"
            next
            edit "172.31.0.2"
                set route-map-out "out_sla"
                set route-map-out-preferable "in_sla"
                set update-source "Loopback0"
            next
        end
        config network
            edit 1
                set prefix 10.0.3.0 255.255.255.0
            next
        end
    end
To configure SD-WAN:
  1. Configure the SD-WAN members:
    config system sdwan
        set status enable
        config members
            edit 1
                set interface "H1_T11"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
            edit 4
                set interface "H1_T22"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
            edit 6
                set interface "H2_T11"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
            edit 9
                set interface "H2_T22"
                set source 172.31.0.65
            next
        end
    end
  2. Configure the health check that must be met:
    config system sdwan
        config health-check
            edit "HUB"
                set server "172.31.100.100"
                set members 0
                config sla
                    edit 1
                        set link-cost-factor latency
                        set latency-threshold 100
                    next
                end
            next
        end
    end
  3. Configure the SD-WAN neighbors:
    config system sdwan
        config neighbor
            edit "172.31.0.1"
                set member 1 4
                set health-check "HUB"
                set sla-id 1
                set minimum-sla-meet-members 1
            next
            edit "172.31.0.2"                                                    
                set member 6 9
                set health-check "HUB"
                set sla-id 1
                set minimum-sla-meet-members 1
            next
        end
    end
To verify that when two members to Hub_1/Hub_2 are in SLA, the preferable route map is be applied on BGP neighbors to Hub_1/Hub_2:
Branch1_A_FGT (root) # diagnose sys sdwan health-check
Health Check(HUB):
Seq(1 H1_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.209), jitter(0.017), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999999), bandwidth-bi(1999998) sla_map=0x1
Seq(4 H1_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.171), jitter(0.004), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x1
Seq(6 H2_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.175), jitter(0.014), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999999), bandwidth-bi(1999998) sla_map=0x1
Seq(9 H2_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.176), jitter(0.019), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x1
# diagnose sys sdwan neighbor
Neighbor(172.31.0.1): member(1 4 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Neighbor(172.31.0.2): member(6 9 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive

On Hub_1 and Hub_2, the expected communities have been attached into the spoke's LAN route:

Hub_1_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24                     
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1                                                            
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:38:29 2021
Hub_2_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24                        
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1                                                                            
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:43:10 2021

If one member for each neighbor becomes out of SLA, the preferable route map is still applied:

Branch1_A_FGT (root) # diagnose sys sdwan health-check
Health Check(HUB):
Seq(1 H1_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.207), jitter(0.018), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x0 
Seq(4 H1_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.182), jitter(0.008), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x1
Seq(6 H2_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.102), jitter(0.009), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x0
Seq(9 H2_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.176), jitter(0.009), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x1
# diagnose sys sdwan neighbor
Neighbor(172.31.0.1): member(1 4 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Neighbor(172.31.0.2): member(6 9 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Hub_1_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1
      Last update: Thu Dec 30 10:44:47 2021
Hub_2_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:43:10 2021

If both members for Hub_1 become out of SLA, the default route map is applied:

Branch1_A_FGT (root) # diagnose sys sdwan health-check
Health Check(HUB):
Seq(1 H1_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.194), jitter(0.018), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x0
Seq(4 H1_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.167), jitter(0.006), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x0
Seq(6 H2_T11): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(120.180), jitter(0.012), mos(4.338), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999998), bandwidth-bi(1999997) sla_map=0x0
Seq(9 H2_T22): state(alive), packet-loss(0.000%) latency(0.170), jitter(0.005), mos(4.404), bandwidth-up(999999), bandwidth-dw(999997), bandwidth-bi(1999996) sla_map=0x1
# diagnose sys sdwan  neighbor
Neighbor(172.31.0.1): member(1 4 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-fail alive
Neighbor(172.31.0.2): member(6 9 )role(standalone)
        Health-check(HUB:1)  sla-pass selected alive
Hub_1_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:2
      Last update: Thu Dec 30 10:57:33 2021
Hub_2_FGT (root) # get router info bgp network 10.0.3.0/24
VRF 0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.3.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  Original VRF 0
  Local, (Received from a RR-client)
    172.31.0.65 from 172.31.0.65 (172.31.0.65)
      Origin IGP metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
      Community: 10:1
      Last update: Wed Dec 29 22:43:10 2021