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Table of Contents

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ADVPN with RIP as the routing protocol
Basic RIP example

Administration Guide

RIP

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector routing protocol that is intended for small and relatively homogeneous networks. It works well when there are minimal redundant paths and limited hop counts. FortiGate supports RIP version 1 (RFC 1058), RIP version 2 (RFC 2453), and RIPng (RFC 2080).

Basic configuration

To configure the FortiGate to participate in RIP using the most basic configurations in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > RIP.

  2. Set the Version.

  3. Add the networks that the FortiGate will advertise in and that will participate in RIP.

  4. If the interface settings, such as passive interface, authentication, or enabling send/receive updates, must be edited, add the interfaces to the Interface table.

  5. Click Apply.

To configure the FortiGate to participate in RIP using the most basic configurations in the CLI:
config router rip
    config network
        edit 1
            set prefix <subnet> <netmask>
        next
    end
    config interface
        edit <interface>
            set receive-version 2
            set send-version 2
        next
    end
end

Default route injection

Enabling Inject default route (default-information-originate) advertises a default route into the FortiGate's RIP network.

To enable/disable default route injection in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > RIP.

  2. Expand the Advanced Options.

  3. Enable/disable Inject Default Route.

  4. Click OK.

To enable/disable default route injection in the CLI:
config router rip
    set default-information-originate {enable | disable}
end

Default metric

The default metric setting sets the default metric for all redistributed routes. If the default metric is set to five, and static routes are redistributed, then static routes have a metric of five. This value can be overridden by setting a specific metric value for a protocol. For example, the static route metric can be set to two, overriding the default metric.

config router rip
    set default-metric 5
    config redistribute "static"
        set status enable
        set metric 2
    end
end

The default metric is five, but redistributed static routes have a metric of two. So, the default metric is overridden and the metric for redistributed static routes is two.

Timers

RIP uses the update, timeout, and garbage timers to regulate its performance. The default timer settings are effective in most configurations. When customizing the settings, you must ensure that the new settings are compatible with your local routers and access servers.

Go to Network > RIP and expand the Advanced Options to configure the timers in the GUI, or use the CLI:

config router rip
    set timeout-timer <seconds>
    set update-timer <seconds>
    set garbage-timer <seconds>
end

Update timer

The update timer sets the interval between routing updates. The default value is 30 seconds. Randomness is added to help prevent network congestion due to multiple routers trying to update their neighbors simultaneously. The update timer must be at least three times shorter than the timeout timer.

If there is significant RIP traffic on the network, you can increase the update timer to send fewer updates. You must apply the same increase to all routers on the network to avoid timeouts that degrade your network speed.

Timeout timer

The timeout timer is the maximum amount of time that a reachable route is kept in the routing table since its last update. The default value is 180 seconds. If an update for the route is received before the timeout period elapses, then the timer is reset. The timeout timer should be at least three times longer than the update timer.

If routers are not responding to updates in time, increasing the timeout timer can help. A longer timeout timer results in longer update periods, and the FortiGate could wait a considerable amount of time for all of the timers to expire on an unresponsive route.

Garbage timer

The garbage timer is the amount of time that the FortiGate advertises a route as unreachable before deleting the route from the routing table. The default value is 120 seconds.

If the timer is short, older routes are removed from the routing table more quickly, resulting in a smaller routing table. This can be useful for large networks, or if the network changes frequently.

Authentication and key chain

RIP version 1 (RIPv1) has no authentication. RIP version 2 (RIPv2) uses text passwords or authentication keys to ensure that the routing information exchanged between routers is reliable. For authentication to work, both the sending and receiving routers must be set to use authentication and must be configured with the same password or keys. An authentication key that uses authentication key chains is more secure than a text password because the intervals when the key is valid can be configured.

A key chain is a list of one or more authentication keys that each have send and receive lifetimes. Keys are used to authenticate routing packets only during the keys specified lifetimes. The FortiGate migrates from one key to the next according to the scheduled lifetimes. The sending and receiving routers should have synchronized system dates and times to ensure that both ends are using the same keys at the same times. You can overlap the key lifetimes to make sure that a key is always available, even if there is some difference in the system times.

To configure a text password in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > RIP.

  2. In the Interfaces table, click Create New, or edit an existing interface.

  3. Enable Authentication and select Text or MD5.

  4. Click Change, and enter the password.

  5. Configure the remaining settings as needed.

  6. Click OK.

  7. Click Apply.

To configure a text password in the CLI:
config router rip
    config interface
        edit <interface>
            set auth-mode {text | md5}
            set auth-string **********
        next
    end  
end
To configure a key chain with two sequentially valid keys and use it in a RIP interface:
config router key-chain
    edit rip_key
        config key
            edit 1
                set accept-lifetime 09:00:00 23 02 2020 09:00:00 17 03 2020
                set send-lifetime 09:00:00 23 02 2020 09:00:00 17 03 2020
                set key-string **********
            next
            edit 2
                set accept-lifetime 09:01:00 17 03 2020 09:00:00 1 04 2020
                set send-lifetime 09:01:00 17 03 2020 09:00:00 1 04 2020
                set key-string **********
            next
        end
    next
end
config router rip
    config interface
        edit port1
            set auth-keychain "rip_key"
        next
    end
end

Passive RIP interfaces

By default, an active RIP interface keeps the FortiGate routing table current by periodically asking neighbors for routes and sending out route updates. This can generate a significant amount of extra traffic in a large network.

A passive RIP interface listens to updates from other routers, but does not send out route updates. This can reduce network traffic when there are redundant routers in the network that would always send out essentially the same updates.

This example shows how to configure a passive RIPv2 interface on port1 using MD5 authentication.

To configure a passive RIP interface in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > RIP.

  2. In the Interfaces table, click Create New.

  3. Set Interface to the required interface.

  4. Enable Passive.

  5. Enable Authentication and set it to MD5.

  6. Click Change and enter a password.

  7. Set Receive Version to 2.

  8. Click OK.

To configure a passive RIP interface in the CLI:
config router rip
    set passive-interface "port1"
    config interface
        edit "port1"
            set auth-mode md5
            set auth-string **********
            set receive-version 2
            set send-version 2
        next
    end
end

RIP and IPv6

RIP next generation (RIPng) is an extension of RIPv2 that includes support for IPv6. See IPv6 tunneling for more information.

More Links

RIP

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector routing protocol that is intended for small and relatively homogeneous networks. It works well when there are minimal redundant paths and limited hop counts. FortiGate supports RIP version 1 (RFC 1058), RIP version 2 (RFC 2453), and RIPng (RFC 2080).

Basic configuration

To configure the FortiGate to participate in RIP using the most basic configurations in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > RIP.

  2. Set the Version.

  3. Add the networks that the FortiGate will advertise in and that will participate in RIP.

  4. If the interface settings, such as passive interface, authentication, or enabling send/receive updates, must be edited, add the interfaces to the Interface table.

  5. Click Apply.

To configure the FortiGate to participate in RIP using the most basic configurations in the CLI:
config router rip
    config network
        edit 1
            set prefix <subnet> <netmask>
        next
    end
    config interface
        edit <interface>
            set receive-version 2
            set send-version 2
        next
    end
end

Default route injection

Enabling Inject default route (default-information-originate) advertises a default route into the FortiGate's RIP network.

To enable/disable default route injection in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > RIP.

  2. Expand the Advanced Options.

  3. Enable/disable Inject Default Route.

  4. Click OK.

To enable/disable de