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Override quality comparisons in SD-WAN longest match rule matching

Administration Guide

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ECMP support for the longest match in SD-WAN rule matching

The longest match SD-WAN rule can match ECMP best routes. The rule will select the egress ports on ECMP specific routes, and not the less specific routes, to transport traffic.

The service mode determines which egress port on the ECMP specific routes is selected to forward traffic:

  • Manual (manual): The first configured alive port is selected.

  • Best Quality (priority): The best quality port is selected.

  • Lowest Cost (sla): The first configured or lower cost port in SLA is selected.

Example

By default, SD-WAN selects the outgoing interface from all of the links that have valid routes to the destination. In some cases, it is required that only the links that have the best (or longest match) routes (single or ECMP) to the destination are considered.

In this example, four SD-WAN members in two zones are configured. The remote PC (PC_2 - 10.1.100.22) is accessible on port15 and port16, even though there are valid routes for all of the SD-WAN members. A single SD-WAN service rule is configured that allows traffic to balanced between all four of the members, but only chooses between port15 and port16 for the specific 10.1.100.22 address.

A performance SLA health check is configured to monitor 10.1.100.2. An SD-WAN service rule in Lowest Cost (SLA) mode is configured to select the best interface to steer the traffic. In the rule, the method of selecting a member if more than one meets the SLA (tie-break) is configured to select members that meet the SLA and match the longest prefix in the routing table (fib-best-match). If there are multiple ECMP routes with the same destination, the FortiGate will take the longest (or best) match in the routing table, and choose from those interface members.

To configure the SD-WAN:
config system sdwan
    config zone
        edit "virtual-wan-link"
        next
        edit "z1"
        next
    end
    config members
        edit 1
            set interface "port1"
            set gateway 172.16.200.2
        next
        edit 2
            set interface "dmz"
            set gateway 172.16.208.2
        next
        edit 3
            set interface "port15"
            set zone "z1"
            set gateway 172.16.209.2
        next
        edit 4
            set interface "port16"
            set zone "z1"
            set gateway 172.16.210.2
        next
    end
    config health-check
        edit "1"
            set server "10.1.100.2"
            set members 0
            config sla
                edit 1
                next
            end
        next
    end
    config service
        edit 1
            set name "1"
            set mode sla
            set dst "all"
            set src "172.16.205.0"
            config sla
                edit "1"
                    set id 1
                next
            end
            set priority-members 1 2 3 4
            set tie-break fib-best-match
        next
    end
end
To check the results:
  1. The debug shows the SD-WAN service rule. All of the members meet SLA, and because no specific costs are attached to the members, the egress interface is selected based on the interface priority order that is configured in the rule:

    FGT_A (root) # diagnose sys sdwan service
    
    Service(1): Address Mode(IPV4) flags=0x200 use-shortcut-sla
      Gen(4), TOS(0x0/0x0), Protocol(0: 1->65535), Mode(sla), sla-compare-order
      Members(4):
        1: Seq_num(1 port1), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(0), cost(0), selected
        2: Seq_num(2 dmz), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(1), cost(0), selected
        3: Seq_num(3 port15), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(2), cost(0), selected
        4: Seq_num(4 port16), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(3), cost(0), selected
      Src address(1):
            172.16.205.0-172.16.205.255
      Dst address(1):
            0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255
    
  2. The routing table shows that there are ECMP default routes on all of the members, and ECMP specific (or best) routes only on port15 and port16:

    FGT_A (root) # get router info routing-table static         
    Routing table for VRF=0
    S*      0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 172.16.200.2, port1
                             [1/0] via 172.16.208.2, dmz
                             [1/0] via 172.16.209.2, port15
                             [1/0] via 172.16.210.2, port16
    S       10.1.100.22/32 [10/0] via 172.16.209.2, port15
                                      [10/0] via 172.16.210.2, port16
    

    Because tie-break is set to fib-best-match, the first configured member from port15 and port16 is selected to forward traffic to PC_2. For all other traffic, the first configured member from all four of the interfaces is selected to forward traffic.

  3. On PC-1, generate traffic to PC-2:

    ping 10.1.100.22
  4. On FGT_A, sniff for traffic sent to PC_2:

    # diagnose sniffer packet any 'host 10.1.100.22' 4
    interfaces=[any]
    filters=[host 10.1.100.22]
    2.831299 port5 in 172.16.205.11 -> 10.1.100.22: icmp: echo request
    2.831400 port15 out 172.16.205.11 -> 10.1.100.22: icmp: echo request

    Traffic is leaving on port15, the first configured member from port15 and port16.

More Links

ECMP support for the longest match in SD-WAN rule matching

The longest match SD-WAN rule can match ECMP best routes. The rule will select the egress ports on ECMP specific routes, and not the less specific routes, to transport traffic.

The service mode determines which egress port on the ECMP specific routes is selected to forward traffic:

  • Manual (manual): The first configured alive port is selected.

  • Best Quality (priority): The best quality port is selected.

  • Lowest Cost (sla): The first configured or lower cost port in SLA is selected.

Example

By default, SD-WAN selects the outgoing interface from all of the links that have valid routes to the destination. In some cases, it is required that only the links that have the best (or longest match) routes (single or ECMP) to the destination are considered.

In this example, four SD-WAN members in two zones are configured. The remote PC (PC_2 - 10.1.100.22) is accessible on port15 and port16, even though there are valid routes for all of the SD-WAN members. A single SD-WAN service rule is configured that allows traffic to balanced between all four of the members, but only chooses between port15 and port16 for the specific 10.1.100.22 address.

A performance SLA health check is configured to monitor 10.1.100.2. An SD-WAN service rule in Lowest Cost (SLA) mode is configured to select the best interface to steer the traffic. In the rule, the method of selecting a member if more than one meets the SLA (tie-break) is configured to select members that meet the SLA and match the longest prefix in the routing table (fib-best-match). If there are multiple ECMP routes with the same destination, the FortiGate will take the longest (or best) match in the routing table, and choose from those interface members.

To configure the SD-WAN:
config system sdwan
    config zone
        edit "virtual-wan-link"
        next
        edit "z1"
        next
    end
    config members
        edit 1
            set interface "port1"
            set gateway 172.16.200.2
        next
        edit 2
            set interface "dmz"
            set gateway 172.16.208.2
        next
        edit 3
            set interface "port15"
            set zone "z1"
            set gateway 172.16.209.2
        next
        edit 4
            set interface "port16"
            set zone "z1"
            set gateway 172.16.210.2
        next
    end
    config health-check
        edit "1"
            set server "10.1.100.2"
            set members 0
            config sla
                edit 1
                next
            end
        next
    end
    config service
        edit 1
            set name "1"
            set mode sla
            set dst "all"
            set src "172.16.205.0"
            config sla
                edit "1"
                    set id 1
                next
            end
            set priority-members 1 2 3 4
            set tie-break fib-best-match
        next
    end
end
To check the results:
  1. The debug shows the SD-WAN service rule. All of the members meet SLA, and because no specific costs are attached to the members, the egress interface is selected based on the interface priority order that is configured in the rule:

    FGT_A (root) # diagnose sys sdwan service
    
    Service(1): Address Mode(IPV4) flags=0x200 use-shortcut-sla
      Gen(4), TOS(0x0/0x0), Protocol(0: 1->65535), Mode(sla), sla-compare-order
      Members(4):
        1: Seq_num(1 port1), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(0), cost(0), selected
        2: Seq_num(2 dmz), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(1), cost(0), selected
        3: Seq_num(3 port15), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(2), cost(0), selected
        4: Seq_num(4 port16), alive, sla(0x1), gid(0), cfg_order(3), cost(0), selected
      Src address(1):
            172.16.205.0-172.16.205.255
      Dst address(1):
            0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255
    
  2. The routing table shows that there are ECMP default routes on all of the members, and ECMP specific (or best) routes only on port15 and port16:

    FGT_A (root) # get router info routing-table static         
    Routing table for VRF=0
    S*      0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 172.16.200.2, port1
                             [1/0] via 172.16.208.2, dmz
                             [1/0] via 172.16.209.2, port15
                             [1/0] via 172.16.210.2, port16
    S       10.1.100.22/32 [10/0] via 172.16.209.2, port15
                                      [10/0] via 172.16.210.2, port16
    

    Because tie-break is set to fib-best-match, the first configured member from port15 and port16 is selected to forward traffic to PC_2. For all other traffic, the first configured member from all four of the interfaces is selected to forward traffic.

  3. On PC-1, generate traffic to PC-2:

    ping 10.1.100.22
  4. On FGT_A, sniff for traffic sent to PC_2:

    # diagnose sniffer packet any 'host 10.1.100.22' 4
    interfaces=[any]
    filters=[host 10.1.100.22]
    2.831299 port5 in 172.16.205.11 -> 10.1.100.22: icmp: echo request
    2.831400 port15 out 172.16.205.11 -> 10.1.100.22: icmp: echo request

    Traffic is leaving on port15, the first configured member from port15 and port16.