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Table of Contents

Administration Guide

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Global traffic prioritization

Global traffic prioritization allows your traffic to be prioritized as high (2), medium (3), or low (4) based on ToS (type of service) or DSCP. When using ToS-based priority, integers 0 to 15 can be used, which correspond to the definitions of the ToS field values in RFC 1349. When using DSCP, values 0 to 63 can be used, which correspond to the six bits in the DSCP value.

The outbandwidth must be defined in order for global prioritization to take effect. When the outbandwidth is defined on an interface without an applied egress-shaping-profile, the interface has a total of five priority levels:

Priority level

Description

0

Top

1

Critical

2

High

3

Medium

4

Low

Priority level 0 is reserved for administrative and local out traffic. Priority level 1 is used for traffic that is below guaranteed bandwidth when using a traffic shaper.

Note

Traffic shaper and traffic shaping profile configurations take precedence over global traffic prioritization.

CLI commands

The following commands are used to configure the prioritization either by ToS or DSCP.

To configure the traffic prioritization type and level: 
config system global
    set traffic-priority {tos | dscp}
    set traffic-priority-level {high | medium | low}
end
To configure the ToS-based priority table: 
config system tos-based-priority
    edit <id>
        set tos <0-15>
        set priority (high | medium | low)
    next
end
To configure the DSCP-based priority table: 
config system dscp-based-priority
    edit <id>
        set ds <0-63>
        set priority (high | medium | low)      
    next
end
To configure the interface outbandwidth: 
config system interface
    edit <name>
        set outbandwidth <bandwidth in kbps>
    next
end

Example

In the following configuration, packets with DSCP markings of 1 are prioritized as high, and packets with DSCP markings of 2 are prioritized as medium. All the other traffic is prioritized as low. The outbandwidth on interface port3 is set to 1000 kbps.

To configure DSCP-based traffic prioritization: 
  1. Configure DSCP-based prioritization in the global settings:
    config system global
        set traffic-priority dscp
        set traffic-priority-level low
    end
  2. Configure the DSCP-based priority table:
    config system dscp-based-priority
        edit 1
            set ds 1
            set priority high
        next
        edit 2
            set ds 2
            set priority medium
        next
    end
  3. Configure the outbandwidth on port3:
    config system interface
        edit "port3"
            set outbandwidth 1000
        next
    end

Verifying the traffic prioritization

When traffic exceeds the outbandwidth of 1000 kbps, traffic prioritization will take effect. Since the form of traffic shaping applied here is policing, excess packets above the outbandwidth are dropped.

In scenario 1, approximately 300 kbps of high priority traffic and 300 kbps of medium priority traffic passes through the FortiGate on port3.

To debug the bandwidth allocation:
# diagnose netlink interface list port3
if=port3 family=00 type=1 index=5 mtu=1500 link=0 master=0
ref=35 state=start present fw_flags=3800 flags=up broadcast run allmulti multicast
Qdisc=pfifo_fast hw_addr=52:54:00:fb:81:0c broadcast_addr=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
outbandwidth=1000(kbps)
        priority=0      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=9311K       drop_bytes=197K
        priority=1      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=0   drop_bytes=0
        priority=2      allocated-bandwidth=354(kbps)   total_bytes=20407K      drop_bytes=48K
        priority=3      allocated-bandwidth=354(kbps)   total_bytes=7093K       drop_bytes=1262K
        priority=4      allocated-bandwidth=290(kbps)   total_bytes=266018K     drop_bytes=7743K
stat: rxp=15450901 txp=25933756 rxb=5456860515 txb=17257309292 rxe=0 txe=0 rxd=0 txd=0 mc=0 collision=0 @ time=1629439926
re: rxl=0 rxo=0 rxc=0 rxf=0 rxfi=0 rxm=0
te: txa=0 txc=0 txfi=0 txh=0 txw=0
misc rxc=0 txc=0
input_type=0 state=3 arp_entry=0 refcnt=35

High priority (2) traffic is allocated 354 kbps of bandwidth. Medium priority (3) traffic is also allocated 354 kbps of bandwidth. The remaining bandwidth is allocated to low priority (4) traffic.

In scenario 2, approximately 400 kbps of high priority traffic and 800 kbps of medium priority traffic passes through the FortiGate on port3.

To debug the bandwidth allocation:
# diagnose netlink interface list port3
if=port3 family=00 type=1 index=5 mtu=1500 link=0 master=0
ref=36 state=start present fw_flags=3800 flags=up broadcast run allmulti multicast
Qdisc=pfifo_fast hw_addr=52:54:00:fb:81:0c broadcast_addr=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
outbandwidth=1000(kbps)
        priority=0      allocated-bandwidth=7(kbps)     total_bytes=9981K       drop_bytes=240K
        priority=1      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=0   drop_bytes=0
        priority=2      allocated-bandwidth=425(kbps)   total_bytes=31478K      drop_bytes=101K
        priority=3      allocated-bandwidth=567(kbps)   total_bytes=12056K      drop_bytes=1984K
        priority=4      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=266795K     drop_bytes=7771K
stat: rxp=15461740 txp=25950805 rxb=5459688950 txb=17273940560 rxe=0 txe=0 rxd=0 txd=0 mc=0 collision=0 @ time=1629440553
re: rxl=0 rxo=0 rxc=0 rxf=0 rxfi=0 rxm=0
te: txa=0 txc=0 txfi=0 txh=0 txw=0
misc rxc=0 txc=0
input_type=0 state=3 arp_entry=0 refcnt=36

High priority (2) traffic is allocated 425 kbps of bandwidth. Medium priority (3) traffic is allocated 567 kbps of bandwidth. Since the total bandwidth required exceeds 1000 kbps, the remaining medium priority (3) traffic is dropped. In comparing the successive debug outputs, the drop_bytes counter for medium priority (3) traffic gets bigger.

Global traffic prioritization

Global traffic prioritization allows your traffic to be prioritized as high (2), medium (3), or low (4) based on ToS (type of service) or DSCP. When using ToS-based priority, integers 0 to 15 can be used, which correspond to the definitions of the ToS field values in RFC 1349. When using DSCP, values 0 to 63 can be used, which correspond to the six bits in the DSCP value.

The outbandwidth must be defined in order for global prioritization to take effect. When the outbandwidth is defined on an interface without an applied egress-shaping-profile, the interface has a total of five priority levels:

Priority level

Description

0

Top

1

Critical

2

High

3

Medium

4

Low

Priority level 0 is reserved for administrative and local out traffic. Priority level 1 is used for traffic that is below guaranteed bandwidth when using a traffic shaper.

Note

Traffic shaper and traffic shaping profile configurations take precedence over global traffic prioritization.

CLI commands

The following commands are used to configure the prioritization either by ToS or DSCP.

To configure the traffic prioritization type and level: 
config system global
    set traffic-priority {tos | dscp}
    set traffic-priority-level {high | medium | low}
end
To configure the ToS-based priority table: 
config system tos-based-priority
    edit <id>
        set tos <0-15>
        set priority (high | medium | low)
    next
end
To configure the DSCP-based priority table: 
config system dscp-based-priority
    edit <id>
        set ds <0-63>
        set priority (high | medium | low)      
    next
end
To configure the interface outbandwidth: 
config system interface
    edit <name>
        set outbandwidth <bandwidth in kbps>
    next
end

Example

In the following configuration, packets with DSCP markings of 1 are prioritized as high, and packets with DSCP markings of 2 are prioritized as medium. All the other traffic is prioritized as low. The outbandwidth on interface port3 is set to 1000 kbps.

To configure DSCP-based traffic prioritization: 
  1. Configure DSCP-based prioritization in the global settings:
    config system global
        set traffic-priority dscp
        set traffic-priority-level low
    end
  2. Configure the DSCP-based priority table:
    config system dscp-based-priority
        edit 1
            set ds 1
            set priority high
        next
        edit 2
            set ds 2
            set priority medium
        next
    end
  3. Configure the outbandwidth on port3:
    config system interface
        edit "port3"
            set outbandwidth 1000
        next
    end

Verifying the traffic prioritization

When traffic exceeds the outbandwidth of 1000 kbps, traffic prioritization will take effect. Since the form of traffic shaping applied here is policing, excess packets above the outbandwidth are dropped.

In scenario 1, approximately 300 kbps of high priority traffic and 300 kbps of medium priority traffic passes through the FortiGate on port3.

To debug the bandwidth allocation:
# diagnose netlink interface list port3
if=port3 family=00 type=1 index=5 mtu=1500 link=0 master=0
ref=35 state=start present fw_flags=3800 flags=up broadcast run allmulti multicast
Qdisc=pfifo_fast hw_addr=52:54:00:fb:81:0c broadcast_addr=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
outbandwidth=1000(kbps)
        priority=0      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=9311K       drop_bytes=197K
        priority=1      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=0   drop_bytes=0
        priority=2      allocated-bandwidth=354(kbps)   total_bytes=20407K      drop_bytes=48K
        priority=3      allocated-bandwidth=354(kbps)   total_bytes=7093K       drop_bytes=1262K
        priority=4      allocated-bandwidth=290(kbps)   total_bytes=266018K     drop_bytes=7743K
stat: rxp=15450901 txp=25933756 rxb=5456860515 txb=17257309292 rxe=0 txe=0 rxd=0 txd=0 mc=0 collision=0 @ time=1629439926
re: rxl=0 rxo=0 rxc=0 rxf=0 rxfi=0 rxm=0
te: txa=0 txc=0 txfi=0 txh=0 txw=0
misc rxc=0 txc=0
input_type=0 state=3 arp_entry=0 refcnt=35

High priority (2) traffic is allocated 354 kbps of bandwidth. Medium priority (3) traffic is also allocated 354 kbps of bandwidth. The remaining bandwidth is allocated to low priority (4) traffic.

In scenario 2, approximately 400 kbps of high priority traffic and 800 kbps of medium priority traffic passes through the FortiGate on port3.

To debug the bandwidth allocation:
# diagnose netlink interface list port3
if=port3 family=00 type=1 index=5 mtu=1500 link=0 master=0
ref=36 state=start present fw_flags=3800 flags=up broadcast run allmulti multicast
Qdisc=pfifo_fast hw_addr=52:54:00:fb:81:0c broadcast_addr=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
outbandwidth=1000(kbps)
        priority=0      allocated-bandwidth=7(kbps)     total_bytes=9981K       drop_bytes=240K
        priority=1      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=0   drop_bytes=0
        priority=2      allocated-bandwidth=425(kbps)   total_bytes=31478K      drop_bytes=101K
        priority=3      allocated-bandwidth=567(kbps)   total_bytes=12056K      drop_bytes=1984K
        priority=4      allocated-bandwidth=0(kbps)     total_bytes=266795K     drop_bytes=7771K
stat: rxp=15461740 txp=25950805 rxb=5459688950 txb=17273940560 rxe=0 txe=0 rxd=0 txd=0 mc=0 collision=0 @ time=1629440553
re: rxl=0 rxo=0 rxc=0 rxf=0 rxfi=0 rxm=0
te: txa=0 txc=0 txfi=0 txh=0 txw=0
misc rxc=0 txc=0
input_type=0 state=3 arp_entry=0 refcnt=36

High priority (2) traffic is allocated 425 kbps of bandwidth. Medium priority (3) traffic is allocated 567 kbps of bandwidth. Since the total bandwidth required exceeds 1000 kbps, the remaining medium priority (3) traffic is dropped. In comparing the successive debug outputs, the drop_bytes counter for medium priority (3) traffic gets bigger.