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Zero Trust Network Access introduction

Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) is an access control method that uses client device identification, authentication, and Zero Trust tags to provide role-based application access. It gives administrators the flexibility to manage network access for On-net local users and Off-net remote users. Access to applications is granted only after device verification, authenticating the user’s identity, authorizing the user, and then performing context based posture checks using Zero Trust tags.

Traditionally, a user and a device have different sets of rules for on-net access and off-net VPN access to company resources. With a distributed workforce and access that spans company networks, data centers, and cloud, managing the rules can become complex. User experience is also affected when multiple VPNs are needed to get to various resources.

Full ZTNA and IP/MAC filtering

ZTNA has two modes: Full ZTNA and IP/MAC filtering:

  • Full ZTNA allows users to securely access resources through a SSL encrypted access proxy. This simplifies remote access by eliminating the use of VPNs.

  • IP/MAC filtering uses ZTNA tags to provide an additional factor for identification and security posture check to implement role-based zero trust access.

ZTNA telemetry, tags, and policy enforcement

When On-net and Off-net FortiClient endpoints register to FortiClient EMS, device information, log on user information, and security posture are all shared over ZTNA telemetry with the EMS server. Clients also make a certificate signing request to obtain a client certificate from the EMS that is acting as the ZTNA Certificate Authority (CA).

Based on the client information, EMS applies matching Zero Trust tagging rules to tag the clients. These tags, and the client certificate information, are synchronized with the FortiGate in real-time. This allows the FortiGate to verify the client's identity using the client certificate, and grant access based on the ZTNA tags applied in the ZTNA rule.

For more information, see Establish device identity and trust context with FortiClient EMS.

Access proxy

The FortiGate access proxy can proxy HTTP and TCP traffic over secure HTTPS connections with the client. This enables seamless access from the client to the protected servers, without needing to form IPsec or SSL VPN tunnels.

HTTPS access proxy

The FortiGate HTTPS access proxy works as a reverse proxy for the HTTP server. When a client connects to a webpage hosted by the protected server, the address resolves to the FortiGate’s access proxy VIP. The FortiGate proxies the connection and takes steps to authenticate the user. It prompts the user for their certificate on the browser, and verifies this against the ZTNA endpoint record that is synchronized from the EMS. If an authentication scheme, such as SAML authentication, is configured, the client is redirected to a captive portal for sign-on. If this passes, traffic is allowed based on the ZTNA rules, and the FortiGate returns the webpage to the client.

For example configurations, see ZTNA HTTPS access proxy example, ZTNA HTTPS access proxy with basic authentication example, and ZTNA proxy access with SAML authentication example .

TCP forwarding access proxy (TFAP)

TCP forwarding access proxy works as a special type of HTTPS reverse proxy. Instead of proxying traffic to a web server, TCP traffic is tunneled between the client and the access proxy over HTTPS, and forwarded to the protected resource. The FortiClient endpoint configures the ZTNA connection by pointing to the proxy gateway, and then specifying the destination host that it wants to reach. An HTTPS connection is made to the FortiGate’s access proxy VIP, where the client certificate is verified and access is granted based on the ZTNA rules. TCP traffic is forwarded from the FortiGate to the protected resource, and an end to end connection is established.

For an example configuration, see ZTNA TCP forwarding access proxy example.

Basic ZTNA configuration components

The basic that are require to configure full ZTNA on the FortiGate are:

  1. FortiClient EMS fabric connector and ZTNA tags.

  2. FortiClient EMS running version 7.0.0 or later.

  3. FortiClient running 7.0.0 or later.

  4. ZTNA server

  5. ZTNA rule

  6. Firewall policy

For configuration details, see Basic ZTNA configuration.

Zero Trust Network Access introduction

Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) is an access control method that uses client device identification, authentication, and Zero Trust tags to provide role-based application access. It gives administrators the flexibility to manage network access for On-net local users and Off-net remote users. Access to applications is granted only after device verification, authenticating the user’s identity, authorizing the user, and then performing context based posture checks using Zero Trust tags.

Traditionally, a user and a device have different sets of rules for on-net access and off-net VPN access to company resources. With a distributed workforce and access that spans company networks, data centers, and cloud, managing the rules can become complex. User experience is also affected when multiple VPNs are needed to get to various resources.

Full ZTNA and IP/MAC filtering

ZTNA has two modes: Full ZTNA and IP/MAC filtering:

  • Full ZTNA allows users to securely access resources through a SSL encrypted access proxy. This simplifies remote access by eliminating the use of VPNs.

  • IP/MAC filtering uses ZTNA tags to provide an additional factor for identification and security posture check to implement role-based zero trust access.

ZTNA telemetry, tags, and policy enforcement

When On-net and Off-net FortiClient endpoints register to FortiClient EMS, device information, log on user information, and security posture are all shared over ZTNA telemetry with the EMS server. Clients also make a certificate signing request to obtain a client certificate from the EMS that is acting as the ZTNA Certificate Authority (CA).

Based on the client information, EMS applies matching Zero Trust tagging rules to tag the clients. These tags, and the client certificate information, are synchronized with the FortiGate in real-time. This allows the FortiGate to verify the client's identity using the client certificate, and grant access based on the ZTNA tags applied in the ZTNA rule.

For more information, see Establish device identity and trust context with FortiClient EMS.

Access proxy

The FortiGate access proxy can proxy HTTP and TCP traffic over secure HTTPS connections with the client. This enables seamless access from the client to the protected servers, without needing to form IPsec or SSL VPN tunnels.

HTTPS access proxy

The FortiGate HTTPS access proxy works as a reverse proxy for the HTTP server. When a client connects to a webpage hosted by the protected server, the address resolves to the FortiGate’s access proxy VIP. The FortiGate proxies the connection and takes steps to authenticate the user. It prompts the user for their certificate on the browser, and verifies this against the ZTNA endpoint record that is synchronized from the EMS. If an authentication scheme, such as SAML authentication, is configured, the client is redirected to a captive portal for sign-on. If this passes, traffic is allowed based on the ZTNA rules, and the FortiGate returns the webpage to the client.

For example configurations, see ZTNA HTTPS access proxy example, ZTNA HTTPS access proxy with basic authentication example, and ZTNA proxy access with SAML authentication example .

TCP forwarding access proxy (TFAP)

TCP forwarding access proxy works as a special type of HTTPS reverse proxy. Instead of proxying traffic to a web server, TCP traffic is tunneled between the client and the access proxy over HTTPS, and forwarded to the protected resource. The FortiClient endpoint configures the ZTNA connection by pointing to the proxy gateway, and then specifying the destination host that it wants to reach. An HTTPS connection is made to the FortiGate’s access proxy VIP, where the client certificate is verified and access is granted based on the ZTNA rules. TCP traffic is forwarded from the FortiGate to the protected resource, and an end to end connection is established.

For an example configuration, see ZTNA TCP forwarding access proxy example.

Basic ZTNA configuration components

The basic that are require to configure full ZTNA on the FortiGate are:

  1. FortiClient EMS fabric connector and ZTNA tags.

  2. FortiClient EMS running version 7.0.0 or later.

  3. FortiClient running 7.0.0 or later.

  4. ZTNA server

  5. ZTNA rule

  6. Firewall policy

For configuration details, see Basic ZTNA configuration.