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Administration Guide

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UDP hole punching for spokes behind NAT

UDP hole punching allows ADVPN shortcuts to be established through a UDP hole on a NAT device. The NAT device must support RFC 4787 Endpoint-Independent Mapping.

In the following example, device 10.1.100.11 behind Spoke1 needs to reach device 192.168.4.33 behind Spoke2. Spoke1 and Spoke2 are behind NAT devices and have established IPsec tunnels to the Hub. The hole punching creates a shortcut between Spoke1 and Spoke2 that bypasses the Hub.

To verify the ADVPN shortcut is established between both spokes behind NAT:
# diagnose debug enable
# diagnose debug application ike -1
ike 0: comes 22.1.1.1:4500->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Informational id=3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63:58ac7c02 len=204
ike 0:toHub1:35: notify msg received: SHORTCUT-OFFER
ike 0:toHub1: shortcut-offer 10.1.100.11->192.168.4.33 psk 64 ppk 0 ver 1 mode 0
ike 0 looking up shortcut by addr 192.168.4.33, name toHub1
ike 0:toHub1: send shortcut-query 1438189781753480593 d3fdd1bfbc94caee/0000000000000000 12.1.1.2 10.1.100.11->192.168.4.33 psk 64 ttl 32 nat 1 ver 1 mode 0
ike 0:toHub1:35: sent IKE msg (SHORTCUT-QUERY): 12.1.1.2:4500->22.1.1.1:4500, len=236, id=3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63:12e263f7
ike 0: comes 22.1.1.1:4500->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Informational id=3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63:4976e1ac len=236
ike 0:toHub1:35: notify msg received: SHORTCUT-REPLY
ike 0:toHub1: recv shortcut-reply 1438189781753480593 d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 14.1.1.3 to 10.1.100.11 psk 64 ppk 0 ver 1 mode 0 nat 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1: iif 22 192.168.4.33->10.1.100.11 route lookup oif 21
ike 0:toHub1: shortcut-reply received from 55.1.1.2:64916, local-nat=yes, peer-nat=yes
ike 0:toHub1: NAT hole punching to peer at 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1: created connection: 0x5e71f58 6 12.1.1.2->55.1.1.2:64916.     <==55.1.1.2:64916 this is UDP hole of NAT device
ike 0:toHub1: adding new dynamic tunnel for 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1_0: added new dynamic tunnel for 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode is sending 1st message...
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: cookie d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (ident_i1send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=632, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Identity Protection id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 len=252
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode get 1st response...
…
…
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: negotiation result
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: proposal id = 1:
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:   protocol id = ISAKMP:
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:      trans_id = KEY_IKE.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:      encapsulation = IKE/none
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=OAKLEY_ENCRYPT_ALG, val=AES_CBC, key-len=128
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=OAKLEY_HASH_ALG, val=SHA2_256.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=AUTH_METHOD, val=PRESHARED_KEY.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=OAKLEY_GROUP, val=MODP2048.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: ISAKMP SA lifetime=86400
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (ident_i2send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=380, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Identity Protection id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 len=380
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode get 2nd response...
…
…
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: add INITIAL-CONTACT
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: add INTERFACE-ADDR4 10.10.1.100
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (ident_i3send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=140, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Identity Protection id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 len=124
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode get 3rd response...
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: received p1 notify type INTERFACE-ADDR4
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: INTERFACE-ADDR4 10.10.1.102
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: peer identifier IPV4_ADDR 14.1.1.3
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: PSK authentication succeeded
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: authentication OK
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: established IKE SA d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: auto-discovery receiver
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: auto-discovery 2
ike 0:toHub1_0: add R/32 route 10.10.1.102 via 10.10.1.102, intf=toHub1(22)
ike 0:toHub1_0: add peer route 10.10.1.102
ike 0:toHub1: schedule auto-negotiate
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: no pending Quick-Mode negotiations
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: IPsec SA connect 6 12.1.1.2->55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: using existing connection
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: traffic triggered, serial=1 1:10.1.100.11:2048->1:192.168.4.33:0
ike 0:toHub1:toHub1: config found
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: IPsec SA connect 6 12.1.1.2->55.1.1.2:64916 negotiating
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: cookie d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23:8465e467
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: natt flags 0x1f, encmode 1->3
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: initiator selectors 0 0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0:0->0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0:0
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (quick_i1send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=620, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23:8465e467
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Quick id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23:8465e467 len=444
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: responder selectors 0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0->0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: my proposal:
…
…
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: add IPsec SA: SPIs=79654cf1/5e9936a5
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: IPsec SA dec spi 79654cf1 key 16:5E21180992B8892DE5142E1F53ABD29E auth 20:49AA4AE14994A39A138392AC517B6E79D98CA673
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: IPsec SA enc spi 5e9936a5 key 16:BE16B8EF4E75F7B3CF97A1D58D996890 auth 20:2F46B57CAC6F3185BB182F9280312263325F6BAF
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: added IPsec SA: SPIs=79654cf1/5e9936a5
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: sending SNMP tunnel UP trapp
To verify the spoke-to-spoke IPsec phase 1 tunnel shortcut is established:
# diagnose vpn ike gateway list
vd: root/0
name: toHub1
version: 1
interface: wan2 6
addr: 12.1.1.2:4500 -> 22.1.1.1:4500
created: 503s ago
assigned IPv4 address: 10.10.1.100/255.255.255.0
nat: me
auto-discovery: 2 receiver
IKE SA: created 1/1  established 1/1  time 0/0/0 ms
IPsec SA: created 1/3  established 1/3  time 0/0/0 ms

  id/spi: 35 3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63
  direction: initiator
  status: established 503-503s ago = 0ms
  proposal: aes128-sha256
  key: 7fca86063ea2e72f-4efea6f1bec23948
  lifetime/rekey: 86400/85596
  DPD sent/recv: 00000000/00000000

vd: root/0
name: toHub1_0
version: 1
interface: wan2 6
addr: 12.1.1.2:4500 -> 55.1.1.2:64916
created: 208s ago
nat: me peer
auto-discovery: 2 receiver
IKE SA: created 1/1  established 1/1  time 20/20/20 ms
IPsec SA: created 1/1  established 1/1  time 10/10/10 ms

  id/spi: 48 d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
  direction: initiator
  status: established 208-208s ago = 20ms
  proposal: aes128-sha256
  key: 9bcac400d8e14e11-fffde33eaa3a8263
  lifetime/rekey: 86400/85891
  DPD sent/recv: 0000000a/00000000

UDP hole punching for spokes behind NAT

UDP hole punching allows ADVPN shortcuts to be established through a UDP hole on a NAT device. The NAT device must support RFC 4787 Endpoint-Independent Mapping.

In the following example, device 10.1.100.11 behind Spoke1 needs to reach device 192.168.4.33 behind Spoke2. Spoke1 and Spoke2 are behind NAT devices and have established IPsec tunnels to the Hub. The hole punching creates a shortcut between Spoke1 and Spoke2 that bypasses the Hub.

To verify the ADVPN shortcut is established between both spokes behind NAT:
# diagnose debug enable
# diagnose debug application ike -1
ike 0: comes 22.1.1.1:4500->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Informational id=3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63:58ac7c02 len=204
ike 0:toHub1:35: notify msg received: SHORTCUT-OFFER
ike 0:toHub1: shortcut-offer 10.1.100.11->192.168.4.33 psk 64 ppk 0 ver 1 mode 0
ike 0 looking up shortcut by addr 192.168.4.33, name toHub1
ike 0:toHub1: send shortcut-query 1438189781753480593 d3fdd1bfbc94caee/0000000000000000 12.1.1.2 10.1.100.11->192.168.4.33 psk 64 ttl 32 nat 1 ver 1 mode 0
ike 0:toHub1:35: sent IKE msg (SHORTCUT-QUERY): 12.1.1.2:4500->22.1.1.1:4500, len=236, id=3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63:12e263f7
ike 0: comes 22.1.1.1:4500->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Informational id=3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63:4976e1ac len=236
ike 0:toHub1:35: notify msg received: SHORTCUT-REPLY
ike 0:toHub1: recv shortcut-reply 1438189781753480593 d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 14.1.1.3 to 10.1.100.11 psk 64 ppk 0 ver 1 mode 0 nat 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1: iif 22 192.168.4.33->10.1.100.11 route lookup oif 21
ike 0:toHub1: shortcut-reply received from 55.1.1.2:64916, local-nat=yes, peer-nat=yes
ike 0:toHub1: NAT hole punching to peer at 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1: created connection: 0x5e71f58 6 12.1.1.2->55.1.1.2:64916.     <==55.1.1.2:64916 this is UDP hole of NAT device
ike 0:toHub1: adding new dynamic tunnel for 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1_0: added new dynamic tunnel for 55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode is sending 1st message...
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: cookie d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (ident_i1send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=632, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Identity Protection id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 len=252
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode get 1st response...
…
…
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: negotiation result
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: proposal id = 1:
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:   protocol id = ISAKMP:
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:      trans_id = KEY_IKE.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:      encapsulation = IKE/none
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=OAKLEY_ENCRYPT_ALG, val=AES_CBC, key-len=128
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=OAKLEY_HASH_ALG, val=SHA2_256.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=AUTH_METHOD, val=PRESHARED_KEY.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:         type=OAKLEY_GROUP, val=MODP2048.
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: ISAKMP SA lifetime=86400
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (ident_i2send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=380, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Identity Protection id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 len=380
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode get 2nd response...
…
…
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: add INITIAL-CONTACT
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: add INTERFACE-ADDR4 10.10.1.100
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (ident_i3send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=140, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Identity Protection id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23 len=124
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: initiator: main mode get 3rd response...
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: received p1 notify type INTERFACE-ADDR4
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: INTERFACE-ADDR4 10.10.1.102
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: peer identifier IPV4_ADDR 14.1.1.3
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: PSK authentication succeeded
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: authentication OK
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: established IKE SA d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: auto-discovery receiver
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: auto-discovery 2
ike 0:toHub1_0: add R/32 route 10.10.1.102 via 10.10.1.102, intf=toHub1(22)
ike 0:toHub1_0: add peer route 10.10.1.102
ike 0:toHub1: schedule auto-negotiate
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: no pending Quick-Mode negotiations
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: IPsec SA connect 6 12.1.1.2->55.1.1.2:64916
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: using existing connection
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: traffic triggered, serial=1 1:10.1.100.11:2048->1:192.168.4.33:0
ike 0:toHub1:toHub1: config found
ike 0:toHub1_0:toHub1: IPsec SA connect 6 12.1.1.2->55.1.1.2:64916 negotiating
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: cookie d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23:8465e467
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: natt flags 0x1f, encmode 1->3
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: initiator selectors 0 0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0:0->0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0:0
ike 0:toHub1_0:48: sent IKE msg (quick_i1send): 12.1.1.2:4500->55.1.1.2:64916, len=620, id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23:8465e467
ike 0: comes 55.1.1.2:64916->12.1.1.2:4500,ifindex=6....
ike 0: IKEv1 exchange=Quick id=d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23:8465e467 len=444
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: responder selectors 0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0->0:0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:0
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: my proposal:
…
…
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: add IPsec SA: SPIs=79654cf1/5e9936a5
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: IPsec SA dec spi 79654cf1 key 16:5E21180992B8892DE5142E1F53ABD29E auth 20:49AA4AE14994A39A138392AC517B6E79D98CA673
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: IPsec SA enc spi 5e9936a5 key 16:BE16B8EF4E75F7B3CF97A1D58D996890 auth 20:2F46B57CAC6F3185BB182F9280312263325F6BAF
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: added IPsec SA: SPIs=79654cf1/5e9936a5
ike 0:toHub1_0:48:toHub1:109: sending SNMP tunnel UP trapp
To verify the spoke-to-spoke IPsec phase 1 tunnel shortcut is established:
# diagnose vpn ike gateway list
vd: root/0
name: toHub1
version: 1
interface: wan2 6
addr: 12.1.1.2:4500 -> 22.1.1.1:4500
created: 503s ago
assigned IPv4 address: 10.10.1.100/255.255.255.0
nat: me
auto-discovery: 2 receiver
IKE SA: created 1/1  established 1/1  time 0/0/0 ms
IPsec SA: created 1/3  established 1/3  time 0/0/0 ms

  id/spi: 35 3c10fb6a76f1e264/6c7b397100dffc63
  direction: initiator
  status: established 503-503s ago = 0ms
  proposal: aes128-sha256
  key: 7fca86063ea2e72f-4efea6f1bec23948
  lifetime/rekey: 86400/85596
  DPD sent/recv: 00000000/00000000

vd: root/0
name: toHub1_0
version: 1
interface: wan2 6
addr: 12.1.1.2:4500 -> 55.1.1.2:64916
created: 208s ago
nat: me peer
auto-discovery: 2 receiver
IKE SA: created 1/1  established 1/1  time 20/20/20 ms
IPsec SA: created 1/1  established 1/1  time 10/10/10 ms

  id/spi: 48 d3fdd1bfbc94caee/16a1eb5b0f37ee23
  direction: initiator
  status: established 208-208s ago = 20ms
  proposal: aes128-sha256
  key: 9bcac400d8e14e11-fffde33eaa3a8263
  lifetime/rekey: 86400/85891
  DPD sent/recv: 0000000a/00000000