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Table of Contents

Cookbook

6.2.0
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Inter-VDOM routing

In the past, virtual domains (VDOMs) were separate from each other and there was no internal communication. Any communication between VDOMs involved traffic leaving on a physical interface belonging to one VDOM and re-entering the FortiGate unit on another physical interface belonging to another VDOM to be inspected by firewall policies in both directions.

Inter-VDOM routing changes this. With VDOM links, VDOMs can communicate internally without using additional physical interfaces.

Inter-VDOM routing is the communication between VDOMs. VDOM links are virtual interfaces that connect VDOMs. A VDOM link contains a pair of interfaces, each one connected to a VDOM and forming either end of the inter-VDOM connection.

When VDOMs are configured on your FortiGate unit, configuring inter-VDOM routing and VDOM-links is very much like creating a VLAN interface. VDOM-links are managed through the web-based manager or CLI. In the web-based manager, VDOM link interfaces are managed in the network interface list.

Note

VDOM link does not support traffic offload. If you want to use traffic offload, use NPU-VDOM-LINK.

To configure a VDOM link in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > Interfaces.
  2. Click Create New > VDOM Link.
  3. Configure the fields including the Name, Virtual Domain, IP information, access levels, and other fields.
To configure a VDOM link in the CLI:
config system vdom-link
    edit "<vdom-link-name>"
    next
end
config system interface
    edit "<vdom-link-name0>"
        set vdom "<VDOM Name>"
        set type vdom-link
    next
end
config system interface
    edit "<vdom-link-name1>"
        set vdom "<VDOM Name>"
        set type vdom-link
    next
end
To delete a VDOM link in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > Interfaces.
  2. Select a VDOM Link and click Delete.
To delete a VDOM link in the CLI:
config system vdom-link
    delete <VDOM-LINK-Name>
end

Sample configuration: Inter-VDOM routing

This example shows how to configure a FortiGate unit to use inter-VDOM routing.

Two departments of a company, Accounting and Sales, are connected to one FortiGate. The company uses a single ISP to connect to the Internet.

This example includes the following general steps. We recommend following the steps in the order below.

Create the VDOMs

To enable VDOMs and create the Sales and Accounting VDOMs:
config system global
     set vdom-mode multi-vdom
end
config system vdom
    edit Accounting
next
    edit Sales
next
end

Configure the physical interfaces

Next, configure the physical interfaces. This example uses three interfaces on the FortiGate unit: port2 (internal), port3 (DMZ), and port1 (external). Port2 and port3 interfaces each have a department’s network connected. Port1 is for all traffic to and from the Internet and uses DHCP to configure its IP address, which is common with many ISPs.

config global
   config system interface
       edit port2
            set alias AccountingLocal
            set vdom Accounting
            set mode static
            set ip 172.100.1.1 255.255.0.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description "The accounting dept internal interface"
       next
       edit port3
            set alias SalesLocal
            set vdom Sales
            set mode static
            set ip 192.168.1.1 255.255.0.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description "The sales dept. internal interface"
       next
       edit port1
            set alias ManagementExternal
            set vdom root
            set mode DHCP
            set distance 5
            set gwdetect enable
            set dns-server-override enable
            set allowaccess https ssh snmp
            set description “The systemwide management interface.”
       end
    end

Configure the VDOM links

To complete the connection between each VDOM and the management VDOM, add the two VDOM links. One pair is the Accounting – management link and the other is the Sales – management link.

When configuring inter-VDOM links, you do not have to assign IP addresses to the links unless you are using advanced features such as dynamic routing that require them. Not assigning IP addresses results in faster configuration and more available IP addresses on your networks.

To configure the Accounting and management VDOM link:
config global
    config system vdom-link
        edit AccountVlnk
    next
    end
    config system interface
        edit AccountVlnk0
            set vdom Accounting
            set ip 11.11.11.2 255.255.255.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description “Accounting side of the VDOM link“
    next
    edit AccountVlnk1
            set vdom root
            set ip 11.11.11.1 255.255.255.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description “Management side of the VDOM link“
    end
end
To configure the Sales and management VDOM link:
config global
    config system vdom-link
        edit SalesVlnk
    end
    config system interface
        edit SalesVlnk0
        set vdom Accounting
        set ip 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0
        set allowaccess https ping ssh
        set description "Sales side of the VDOM link"
    next
    edit SalesVlnk1
        set vdom root
        set ip 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0
        set allowaccess https ping ssh
        set description "Management side of the VDOM link"
    end
end

Configure the firewall and Security Profile

With the VDOMs, physical interfaces, and VDOM links configured, the firewall must now be configured to allow the proper traffic. Firewalls are configured per-VDOM, and firewall objects and routes must be created for each VDOM separately.

To configure the firewall policies from AccountingLocal to Internet:
config vdom
    edit Accounting
        config firewall policy
            edit 1
                set name "Accounting-Local-to-Management"
                set srcintf port2
                set dstintf AccountVlnk
                set srcaddr all
                set dstaddr all
                set action accept
                set schedule always
                set service ALL
                set nat enable
    end
end
config vdom
    edit root
        config firewall policy
            edit 2
                set name "Accounting-VDOM-to-Internet"
                set srcintf AccountVlnk
                set dstintf port1
                set srcaddr all
                set dstaddr all
                set action accept
                set schedule always
                set service ALL
                set nat enable
        end
end
To configure the firewall policies from SalesLocal to the Internet:
config vdom
    edit root
        config firewall policy
            edit 6
                set name "Sales-local-to-Management"
                set srcintf port2
                set srcaddr all
                set dstintf SalesVlnk
                set dstaddr all
                set schedule always
                set service ALL
                set action accept
                set logtraffic enable
        end
end
config vdom
    edit Sales
        config firewall policy
            edit 7
                set name "Sales-VDOM-to-Internet"
                set srcintf SalesVlnk
                set srcaddr SalesManagement
                set dstintf external
                set dstaddr all
                set schedule always
                set service OfficeServices
                set action accept
                set logtraffic enable
        end
end

Test the configuration

When the inter-VDOM routing has been configured, test the configuration to confirm proper operation.

Testing connectivity ensures that physical networking connections, FortiGate unit interface configurations, and firewall policies are properly configured.

The easiest way to test connectivity is to use the ping and traceroute command to confirm the connectivity of different routes on the network.

Test both from AccountingLocal to Internet and from SalesLocal to Internet.

Inter-VDOM routing

In the past, virtual domains (VDOMs) were separate from each other and there was no internal communication. Any communication between VDOMs involved traffic leaving on a physical interface belonging to one VDOM and re-entering the FortiGate unit on another physical interface belonging to another VDOM to be inspected by firewall policies in both directions.

Inter-VDOM routing changes this. With VDOM links, VDOMs can communicate internally without using additional physical interfaces.

Inter-VDOM routing is the communication between VDOMs. VDOM links are virtual interfaces that connect VDOMs. A VDOM link contains a pair of interfaces, each one connected to a VDOM and forming either end of the inter-VDOM connection.

When VDOMs are configured on your FortiGate unit, configuring inter-VDOM routing and VDOM-links is very much like creating a VLAN interface. VDOM-links are managed through the web-based manager or CLI. In the web-based manager, VDOM link interfaces are managed in the network interface list.

Note

VDOM link does not support traffic offload. If you want to use traffic offload, use NPU-VDOM-LINK.

To configure a VDOM link in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > Interfaces.
  2. Click Create New > VDOM Link.
  3. Configure the fields including the Name, Virtual Domain, IP information, access levels, and other fields.
To configure a VDOM link in the CLI:
config system vdom-link
    edit "<vdom-link-name>"
    next
end
config system interface
    edit "<vdom-link-name0>"
        set vdom "<VDOM Name>"
        set type vdom-link
    next
end
config system interface
    edit "<vdom-link-name1>"
        set vdom "<VDOM Name>"
        set type vdom-link
    next
end
To delete a VDOM link in the GUI:
  1. Go to Network > Interfaces.
  2. Select a VDOM Link and click Delete.
To delete a VDOM link in the CLI:
config system vdom-link
    delete <VDOM-LINK-Name>
end

Sample configuration: Inter-VDOM routing

This example shows how to configure a FortiGate unit to use inter-VDOM routing.

Two departments of a company, Accounting and Sales, are connected to one FortiGate. The company uses a single ISP to connect to the Internet.

This example includes the following general steps. We recommend following the steps in the order below.

Create the VDOMs

To enable VDOMs and create the Sales and Accounting VDOMs:
config system global
     set vdom-mode multi-vdom
end
config system vdom
    edit Accounting
next
    edit Sales
next
end

Configure the physical interfaces

Next, configure the physical interfaces. This example uses three interfaces on the FortiGate unit: port2 (internal), port3 (DMZ), and port1 (external). Port2 and port3 interfaces each have a department’s network connected. Port1 is for all traffic to and from the Internet and uses DHCP to configure its IP address, which is common with many ISPs.

config global
   config system interface
       edit port2
            set alias AccountingLocal
            set vdom Accounting
            set mode static
            set ip 172.100.1.1 255.255.0.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description "The accounting dept internal interface"
       next
       edit port3
            set alias SalesLocal
            set vdom Sales
            set mode static
            set ip 192.168.1.1 255.255.0.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description "The sales dept. internal interface"
       next
       edit port1
            set alias ManagementExternal
            set vdom root
            set mode DHCP
            set distance 5
            set gwdetect enable
            set dns-server-override enable
            set allowaccess https ssh snmp
            set description “The systemwide management interface.”
       end
    end

Configure the VDOM links

To complete the connection between each VDOM and the management VDOM, add the two VDOM links. One pair is the Accounting – management link and the other is the Sales – management link.

When configuring inter-VDOM links, you do not have to assign IP addresses to the links unless you are using advanced features such as dynamic routing that require them. Not assigning IP addresses results in faster configuration and more available IP addresses on your networks.

To configure the Accounting and management VDOM link:
config global
    config system vdom-link
        edit AccountVlnk
    next
    end
    config system interface
        edit AccountVlnk0
            set vdom Accounting
            set ip 11.11.11.2 255.255.255.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description “Accounting side of the VDOM link“
    next
    edit AccountVlnk1
            set vdom root
            set ip 11.11.11.1 255.255.255.0
            set allowaccess https ping ssh
            set description “Management side of the VDOM link“
    end
end
To configure the Sales and management VDOM link:
config global
    config system vdom-link
        edit SalesVlnk
    end
    config system interface
        edit SalesVlnk0
        set vdom Accounting
        set ip 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0
        set allowaccess https ping ssh
        set description "Sales side of the VDOM link"
    next
    edit SalesVlnk1
        set vdom root
        set ip 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0
        set allowaccess https ping ssh
        set description "Management side of the VDOM link"
    end
end

Configure the firewall and Security Profile

With the VDOMs, physical interfaces, and VDOM links configured, the firewall must now be configured to allow the proper traffic. Firewalls are configured per-VDOM, and firewall objects and routes must be created for each VDOM separately.

To configure the firewall policies from AccountingLocal to Internet:
config vdom
    edit Accounting
        config firewall policy
            edit 1
                set name "Accounting-Local-to-Management"
                set srcintf port2
                set dstintf AccountVlnk
                set srcaddr all
                set dstaddr all
                set action accept
                set schedule always
                set service ALL
                set nat enable
    end
end
config vdom
    edit root
        config firewall policy
            edit 2
                set name "Accounting-VDOM-to-Internet"
                set srcintf AccountVlnk
                set dstintf port1
                set srcaddr all
                set dstaddr all
                set action accept
                set schedule always
                set service ALL
                set nat enable
        end
end
To configure the firewall policies from SalesLocal to the Internet:
config vdom
    edit root
        config firewall policy
            edit 6
                set name "Sales-local-to-Management"
                set srcintf port2
                set srcaddr all
                set dstintf SalesVlnk
                set dstaddr all
                set schedule always
                set service ALL
                set action accept
                set logtraffic enable
        end
end
config vdom
    edit Sales
        config firewall policy
            edit 7
                set name "Sales-VDOM-to-Internet"
                set srcintf SalesVlnk
                set srcaddr SalesManagement
                set dstintf external
                set dstaddr all
                set schedule always
                set service OfficeServices
                set action accept
                set logtraffic enable
        end
end

Test the configuration

When the inter-VDOM routing has been configured, test the configuration to confirm proper operation.

Testing connectivity ensures that physical networking connections, FortiGate unit interface configurations, and firewall policies are properly configured.

The easiest way to test connectivity is to use the ping and traceroute command to confirm the connectivity of different routes on the network.

Test both from AccountingLocal to Internet and from SalesLocal to Internet.