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Weighted random early detection queuing

You can use the weighted random early detection (WRED) queuing function within traffic shaping.

This topic includes three parts:

You cannot configure or view WRED in the GUI; you must use the CLI.

Caution

WRED is not supported when traffic is offloaded to an NPU.

Traffic shaping with queuing

Traffic shaping has a queuing option. Use this option to fine-tune the queue by setting the profile queue size or performing RED (random early drop) according to queue usage.

This example shows setting the profile queue size limit to 5 so that the queue can contain a maximum of five packets and more packets are dropped.

To set the profile queue size limit:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit "profile"
        set type queuing
        set default-class-id 31
        config shaping-entries
            edit 31
                set class-id 31
                set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 5
                set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 10
                set limit 5  <range from 5 to 10000; default: 1000>
            next
        end
    next
end

This example shows performing RED according to queue usage by setting red-probability, min, and max. Setting red-probability to 10 means start to drop packets when queue usage reaches the min setting. When queue usage reaches the max setting, drop 10% of the packets.

  • Level 1: when queue is less than min packets, drop 0% of packets.
  • Level 2: when queue reaches min packets, start to drop packets.
  • Level 3: when queue usage is between min and max packets, drop 0–10% of packets by proportion.
  • Level 4: when queue (average queue size) is more than max packets, drop 100% of packets.
To set RED according to queue usage:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit "profile"
        set type queuing 
        set default-class-id 31
        config shaping-entries
            edit 31
                set class-id 31
                set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 5
                set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 10
                set red-probability 10 <range from 0 to 20; default: 0 no drop>
                set min 100 <range from 3 to 3000>
                set max 300 <range from 3 to 3000>
            next
        end
    next
end
To troubleshoot this function, use the following diagnose commands:
diagnose netlink intf-class list <intf>
diagnose netlink intf-qdisc list <intf>

Burst control in queuing mode

In an HTB algorithm, each traffic class has buckets to allow a burst of traffic. The maximum burst is determined by the bucket size burst (for guaranteed bandwidth) and cburst (for maximum bandwidth). The shaping profile has burst-in-msec and cburst-in-msec parameters for each shaping entry (class id) to control the bucket size.

This example uses the outbandwidth of the interface as 1 Mbps and the maximum bandwidth of class is 50%.

burst = burst-in-msec * guaranteed bandwidth = 100 ms × 1 Mbps x 50% = 50000 b = 6250 B

cburst = cburst-in-msec * maximum bandwidth = 200 ms × 1 Mbps x 50% = 100000 b = 12500 B

The following example sets burst-in-msec to 100 and cburst-in-msec to 200.

To set burst control in queuing mode:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit "profile"
        set type queuing
        set default-class-id 31
        config shaping-entries
            edit 31
                set class-id 31
                set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 5
                set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 50
                set burst-in-msec 100 <range from 0 to 2000>
                set cburst-in-msec 200 <range from 0 to 2000>
            next
        end
    next
end

Multi-stage DSCP marking and class ID in traffic shapers

Traffic shapers have a multi-stage method so that packets are marked with a different DSCP and class id at different traffic speeds. Marking packets with a different DSCP code is for the next hop to classify the packets. The FortiGate benefits by marking packets with a different class id. Combined with the egress interface shaping profile, the FortiGate can handle the traffic differently according to its class id.

Rule

DSCP code

Class ID

speed < guarantee bandwidth

diffservcode

class id in shaping policy

guarantee bandwidth < speed < exceed bandwidth

exceed-dscp

exceed-class-id

exceed bandwidth < speed

maximum-dscp

exceed-class-id

This example sets the following parameters:

  • When the current bandwidth is less than 50 Kbps, mark packets with diffservcode 100000 and set class id to 10.
  • When the current bandwidth is between 50 Kbps and 100 Kbps, mark packets with exceed-dscp 111000 and set exceed-class-id to 20.
  • When the current bandwidth is more than 100 Kbps, mark packets with maximum-dscp 111111 and set exceed-class-id to 20.
To set multi-stage DSCP marking and class ID in a traffic shaper:
config firewall shaper traffic-shaper
    edit "50k-100k-150k"
        set guaranteed-bandwidth 50
        set maximum-bandwidth 150
        set diffserv enable
        set dscp-marking-method multi-stage
        set exceed-bandwidth 100 
        set exceed-dscp 111000      
        set exceed-class-id 20
        set maximum-dscp 111111
        set diffservcode 100000
    next
end
config firewall shaping-policy
     edit 1
         set service "ALL"
         set dstintf PORT2
         set srcaddr "all"
         set dstaddr "all"
         set class-id 10
     next
end

Traffic shapers also have an overhead option that defines the per-packet size overhead used in rate computation.

To set the traffic shaper overhead option:
config firewall shaper traffic-shaper
    edit "testing"
        set guaranteed-bandwidth 50
        set maximum-bandwidth 150
        set overhead 14 <range from 0 to 100>
    next
end

Examples

Enabling RED for FTP traffic from QA

This first example shows how to enable RED for FTP traffic from QA. This example sets a maximum of 10% of the packets to be dropped when queue usage reaches the maximum value.

To configure the firewall address:
config firewall address
    edit QA_team
        set subnet 10.1.100.0/24
    next
end
To set the shaping policy to classify traffic into different class IDs:
config firewall shaping-policy
    edit 1
        set service HTTPS HTTP
        set dstintf port1
        set srcaddr QA_team
        set dstaddr all
        set class-id 10
    next
    edit 2
        set service FTP
        set dstintf port1
        set srcaddr QA_team
        set dstaddr all
        set class-id 20
    next
end
To set the shaping policy to define the speed of each class ID:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit QA_team_profile 
       set type queuing
       set default-class-id 30
            config shaping-entries
                edit 1
                    set class-id 10
                    set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 50 
                    set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 100
                next
                edit 2
                    set class-id 20
                    set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 30
                    set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 60
                    set red-probability 10
                next
                edit 3
                    set class-id 30
                    set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 20
                    set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 50
                next
            end
    next
end
To apply the shaping policy to the interface:
config sys interface
    edit port1
        set outbandwidth 10000
        set egress-shaping-profile QA_team_profile
    next
end
To use diagnose commands to troubleshoot:
# diagnose netlink intf-class list port1
class htb 1:1 root rate 1250000Bps ceil 1250000Bps burst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 7 buffer [00004e20] cbuffer [00004e20]
 Sent 11709 bytes 69 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 226Bps 2pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 3 borrowed: 0 giants: 0
 tokens: 18500 ctokens: 18500
class htb 1:10 parent 1:1 leaf 10: prio 1 quantum 62500 rate 625000Bps ceil 1250000Bps burst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 0 buffer [00009c40] cbuffer [00004e20]
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 0Bps 0pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 0 borrowed: 0 giants: 0
 tokens: 40000 ctokens: 20000
class htb 1:20 parent 1:1 leaf 20: prio 1 quantum 37500 rate 375000Bps ceil 750000Bps burst 1599B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1599B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 0 buffer [0001046a] cbuffer [00008235]
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 0Bps 0pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 0 borrowed: 0 giants: 0
 tokens: 66666 ctokens: 33333
class htb 1:30 parent 1:1 leaf 30: prio 1 quantum 25000 rate 250000Bps ceil 625000Bps burst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 0 buffer [000186a0] cbuffer [00009c40]
 Sent 11709 bytes 69 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 226Bps 2pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 66 borrowed: 3 giants: 0
 tokens: 92500 ctokens: 37000
class red 20:1 parent 20:0
 # diagnose netlink intf-qdisc list port1
qdisc htb 1: root refcnt 5 r2q 10 default 30 direct_packets_stat 0 ver 3.17
 Sent 18874 bytes 109 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 5 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p
qdisc pfifo 10: parent 1:10 refcnt 1 limit 1000p
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p
qdisc red 20: parent 1:20 refcnt 1 limit 4000000B min 300000B max 1000000B ewma 9 Plog 23 Scell_log 20 flags 0
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p
  marked 0 early 0 pdrop 0 other 0
qdisc pfifo 30: parent 1:30 refcnt 1 limit 1000p
 Sent 18874 bytes 109 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p

Marking QA traffic with a different DSCP

This second example shows how to mark QA traffic with a different DSCP according to real-time traffic speed.

To configure the firewall address:
config firewall address
    edit QA_team
        set subnet 10.1.100.0/24
    next
end
To configure the firewall shaper traffic shaper:
config firewall shaper traffic-shaper
    edit "500k-1000k-1500k"
        set guaranteed-bandwidth 500
        set maximum-bandwidth 1500
        set diffserv enable
        set dscp-marking-method multi-stage
        set exceed-bandwidth 1000
        set exceed-dscp 111000
        set maximum-dscp 111111
        set diffservcode 100000
    next
end
config firewall shaping-policy
    edit QA_team
        set service "ALL"
        set dstintf port1
        set traffic-shaper "500k-1000k-1500k"
        set traffic-shaper-reverse "500k-1000k-1500k"
        set srcaddr "QA_team"
        set dstaddr "all"
    next
end

Weighted random early detection queuing

You can use the weighted random early detection (WRED) queuing function within traffic shaping.

This topic includes three parts:

You cannot configure or view WRED in the GUI; you must use the CLI.

Caution

WRED is not supported when traffic is offloaded to an NPU.

Traffic shaping with queuing

Traffic shaping has a queuing option. Use this option to fine-tune the queue by setting the profile queue size or performing RED (random early drop) according to queue usage.

This example shows setting the profile queue size limit to 5 so that the queue can contain a maximum of five packets and more packets are dropped.

To set the profile queue size limit:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit "profile"
        set type queuing
        set default-class-id 31
        config shaping-entries
            edit 31
                set class-id 31
                set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 5
                set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 10
                set limit 5  <range from 5 to 10000; default: 1000>
            next
        end
    next
end

This example shows performing RED according to queue usage by setting red-probability, min, and max. Setting red-probability to 10 means start to drop packets when queue usage reaches the min setting. When queue usage reaches the max setting, drop 10% of the packets.

  • Level 1: when queue is less than min packets, drop 0% of packets.
  • Level 2: when queue reaches min packets, start to drop packets.
  • Level 3: when queue usage is between min and max packets, drop 0–10% of packets by proportion.
  • Level 4: when queue (average queue size) is more than max packets, drop 100% of packets.
To set RED according to queue usage:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit "profile"
        set type queuing 
        set default-class-id 31
        config shaping-entries
            edit 31
                set class-id 31
                set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 5
                set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 10
                set red-probability 10 <range from 0 to 20; default: 0 no drop>
                set min 100 <range from 3 to 3000>
                set max 300 <range from 3 to 3000>
            next
        end
    next
end
To troubleshoot this function, use the following diagnose commands:
diagnose netlink intf-class list <intf>
diagnose netlink intf-qdisc list <intf>

Burst control in queuing mode

In an HTB algorithm, each traffic class has buckets to allow a burst of traffic. The maximum burst is determined by the bucket size burst (for guaranteed bandwidth) and cburst (for maximum bandwidth). The shaping profile has burst-in-msec and cburst-in-msec parameters for each shaping entry (class id) to control the bucket size.

This example uses the outbandwidth of the interface as 1 Mbps and the maximum bandwidth of class is 50%.

burst = burst-in-msec * guaranteed bandwidth = 100 ms × 1 Mbps x 50% = 50000 b = 6250 B

cburst = cburst-in-msec * maximum bandwidth = 200 ms × 1 Mbps x 50% = 100000 b = 12500 B

The following example sets burst-in-msec to 100 and cburst-in-msec to 200.

To set burst control in queuing mode:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit "profile"
        set type queuing
        set default-class-id 31
        config shaping-entries
            edit 31
                set class-id 31
                set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 5
                set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 50
                set burst-in-msec 100 <range from 0 to 2000>
                set cburst-in-msec 200 <range from 0 to 2000>
            next
        end
    next
end

Multi-stage DSCP marking and class ID in traffic shapers

Traffic shapers have a multi-stage method so that packets are marked with a different DSCP and class id at different traffic speeds. Marking packets with a different DSCP code is for the next hop to classify the packets. The FortiGate benefits by marking packets with a different class id. Combined with the egress interface shaping profile, the FortiGate can handle the traffic differently according to its class id.

Rule

DSCP code

Class ID

speed < guarantee bandwidth

diffservcode

class id in shaping policy

guarantee bandwidth < speed < exceed bandwidth

exceed-dscp

exceed-class-id

exceed bandwidth < speed

maximum-dscp

exceed-class-id

This example sets the following parameters:

  • When the current bandwidth is less than 50 Kbps, mark packets with diffservcode 100000 and set class id to 10.
  • When the current bandwidth is between 50 Kbps and 100 Kbps, mark packets with exceed-dscp 111000 and set exceed-class-id to 20.
  • When the current bandwidth is more than 100 Kbps, mark packets with maximum-dscp 111111 and set exceed-class-id to 20.
To set multi-stage DSCP marking and class ID in a traffic shaper:
config firewall shaper traffic-shaper
    edit "50k-100k-150k"
        set guaranteed-bandwidth 50
        set maximum-bandwidth 150
        set diffserv enable
        set dscp-marking-method multi-stage
        set exceed-bandwidth 100 
        set exceed-dscp 111000      
        set exceed-class-id 20
        set maximum-dscp 111111
        set diffservcode 100000
    next
end
config firewall shaping-policy
     edit 1
         set service "ALL"
         set dstintf PORT2
         set srcaddr "all"
         set dstaddr "all"
         set class-id 10
     next
end

Traffic shapers also have an overhead option that defines the per-packet size overhead used in rate computation.

To set the traffic shaper overhead option:
config firewall shaper traffic-shaper
    edit "testing"
        set guaranteed-bandwidth 50
        set maximum-bandwidth 150
        set overhead 14 <range from 0 to 100>
    next
end

Examples

Enabling RED for FTP traffic from QA

This first example shows how to enable RED for FTP traffic from QA. This example sets a maximum of 10% of the packets to be dropped when queue usage reaches the maximum value.

To configure the firewall address:
config firewall address
    edit QA_team
        set subnet 10.1.100.0/24
    next
end
To set the shaping policy to classify traffic into different class IDs:
config firewall shaping-policy
    edit 1
        set service HTTPS HTTP
        set dstintf port1
        set srcaddr QA_team
        set dstaddr all
        set class-id 10
    next
    edit 2
        set service FTP
        set dstintf port1
        set srcaddr QA_team
        set dstaddr all
        set class-id 20
    next
end
To set the shaping policy to define the speed of each class ID:
config firewall shaping-profile
    edit QA_team_profile 
       set type queuing
       set default-class-id 30
            config shaping-entries
                edit 1
                    set class-id 10
                    set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 50 
                    set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 100
                next
                edit 2
                    set class-id 20
                    set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 30
                    set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 60
                    set red-probability 10
                next
                edit 3
                    set class-id 30
                    set guaranteed-bandwidth-percentage 20
                    set maximum-bandwidth-percentage 50
                next
            end
    next
end
To apply the shaping policy to the interface:
config sys interface
    edit port1
        set outbandwidth 10000
        set egress-shaping-profile QA_team_profile
    next
end
To use diagnose commands to troubleshoot:
# diagnose netlink intf-class list port1
class htb 1:1 root rate 1250000Bps ceil 1250000Bps burst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 7 buffer [00004e20] cbuffer [00004e20]
 Sent 11709 bytes 69 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 226Bps 2pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 3 borrowed: 0 giants: 0
 tokens: 18500 ctokens: 18500
class htb 1:10 parent 1:1 leaf 10: prio 1 quantum 62500 rate 625000Bps ceil 1250000Bps burst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 0 buffer [00009c40] cbuffer [00004e20]
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 0Bps 0pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 0 borrowed: 0 giants: 0
 tokens: 40000 ctokens: 20000
class htb 1:20 parent 1:1 leaf 20: prio 1 quantum 37500 rate 375000Bps ceil 750000Bps burst 1599B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1599B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 0 buffer [0001046a] cbuffer [00008235]
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 0Bps 0pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 0 borrowed: 0 giants: 0
 tokens: 66666 ctokens: 33333
class htb 1:30 parent 1:1 leaf 30: prio 1 quantum 25000 rate 250000Bps ceil 625000Bps burst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B cburst 1600B/8 mpu 0B overhead 0B level 0 buffer [000186a0] cbuffer [00009c40]
 Sent 11709 bytes 69 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 226Bps 2pps backlog 0B 0p
 lended: 66 borrowed: 3 giants: 0
 tokens: 92500 ctokens: 37000
class red 20:1 parent 20:0
 # diagnose netlink intf-qdisc list port1
qdisc htb 1: root refcnt 5 r2q 10 default 30 direct_packets_stat 0 ver 3.17
 Sent 18874 bytes 109 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 5 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p
qdisc pfifo 10: parent 1:10 refcnt 1 limit 1000p
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p
qdisc red 20: parent 1:20 refcnt 1 limit 4000000B min 300000B max 1000000B ewma 9 Plog 23 Scell_log 20 flags 0
 Sent 0 bytes 0 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p
  marked 0 early 0 pdrop 0 other 0
qdisc pfifo 30: parent 1:30 refcnt 1 limit 1000p
 Sent 18874 bytes 109 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 backlog 0B 0p

Marking QA traffic with a different DSCP

This second example shows how to mark QA traffic with a different DSCP according to real-time traffic speed.

To configure the firewall address:
config firewall address
    edit QA_team
        set subnet 10.1.100.0/24
    next
end
To configure the firewall shaper traffic shaper:
config firewall shaper traffic-shaper
    edit "500k-1000k-1500k"
        set guaranteed-bandwidth 500
        set maximum-bandwidth 1500
        set diffserv enable
        set dscp-marking-method multi-stage
        set exceed-bandwidth 1000
        set exceed-dscp 111000
        set maximum-dscp 111111
        set diffservcode 100000
    next
end
config firewall shaping-policy
    edit QA_team
        set service "ALL"
        set dstintf port1
        set traffic-shaper "500k-1000k-1500k"
        set traffic-shaper-reverse "500k-1000k-1500k"
        set srcaddr "QA_team"
        set dstaddr "all"
    next
end