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Cookbook

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Configuring clustering

  1. On the primary FortiGate, enter the following CLI command to set the HA mode to active-passive, set a group-id, group name, and password, increase the device priority to 200, enable override, and configure the heartbeat interfaces (lan4 and lan5 in this example).
  2. config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 200

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

    Note

    If you have more than one cluster on the same network, each cluster should have a different group id. Changing the group id changes the cluster interface virtual MAC addresses. If your group id causes a MAC address conflict on your network, you can select a different group id.

    Enabling override is optional; but it makes sure the FortiGate with the highest device priority becomes the primary unit.

    You can also configure most of these settings from the GUI (go to Global > System > HA). The group-id and override can only be configured from the CLI.

  3. On the Backup-1 FortiGate, duplicate the primary FortiGate HA mode, group-id, group-name, password, override, and heartbeat device settings. Set the device priority to 50. Setting the device priority to a relatively low value means the Backup-1 FortiGate will most likely always become the backup FortiGate.
  4. config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 50

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

  5. On the Backup-2 FortiGate, duplicate the primary FortiGate HA mode, group-id, group-name, password, override, and heartbeat device settings. Set the device priority to 150. A device priority of 150 is almost as high as the device priority of the primary FortiGate. So if the primary FortiGate fails, the Backup-2 FortiGate should become the new primary FortiGate.
  6. config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 150

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

  7. On the Backup-3 FortiGate, duplicate the primary FortiGate HA mode, group-id, group-name, password, override, and heartbeat device settings. Set the device priority to 100. A device priority of 100 means that if the backup FortiGate fails, the Backup-3 FortiGate will have the lowest device priority so will become the new backup FortiGate.

    config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 100

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

    After you enable HA, each FortiGate negotiates to establish an HA cluster. You may temporarily lose connectivity as FGCP negotiation takes place and the MAC addresses of the FortiGate interfaces change to HA virtual MAC addresses.

    Note

    If these steps don't start HA mode, make sure that none of the FortiGate's interfaces use DHCP or PPPoE addressing.

    To reconnect sooner, you can update the ARP table of your management PC by deleting the ARP table entry for the FortiGate (or just deleting all ARP table entries). You can usually delete the ARP table from a command prompt using a command similar to arp -d.

    The FGCP uses virtual MAC addresses for failover. The virtual MAC address assigned to each FortiGate interface depends on the HA group ID. A group ID of 88 sets FortiGate interfaces to the following MAC addresses: 00:09:0f:09:58:00, 00:09:0f:09:58:01, 00:09:0f:09:58:02 and so on. For details, see Cluster virtual MAC addresses.

    You can verify that the FGCP has set the virtual MAC addresses by viewing the configuration of each FortiGate interface from the GUI (go to Network > Interfaces) or by entering the following CLI command (shown below for lan2 on a FortiGate-51E):

    get hardware nic lan2

    ...

    Current_HWaddr 00:09:0f:09:58:01

    Permanent_HWaddr 70:4c:a5:98:11:54

    ...

    You can also use the diagnose hardware deviceinfo nic lan2 command to display this information.

    The output shows the current hardware (MAC) address (the virtual MAC set by the FGCP) and the permanent hardware (MAC) address for the interface.

Configuring clustering

  1. On the primary FortiGate, enter the following CLI command to set the HA mode to active-passive, set a group-id, group name, and password, increase the device priority to 200, enable override, and configure the heartbeat interfaces (lan4 and lan5 in this example).
  2. config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 200

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

    Note

    If you have more than one cluster on the same network, each cluster should have a different group id. Changing the group id changes the cluster interface virtual MAC addresses. If your group id causes a MAC address conflict on your network, you can select a different group id.

    Enabling override is optional; but it makes sure the FortiGate with the highest device priority becomes the primary unit.

    You can also configure most of these settings from the GUI (go to Global > System > HA). The group-id and override can only be configured from the CLI.

  3. On the Backup-1 FortiGate, duplicate the primary FortiGate HA mode, group-id, group-name, password, override, and heartbeat device settings. Set the device priority to 50. Setting the device priority to a relatively low value means the Backup-1 FortiGate will most likely always become the backup FortiGate.
  4. config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 50

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

  5. On the Backup-2 FortiGate, duplicate the primary FortiGate HA mode, group-id, group-name, password, override, and heartbeat device settings. Set the device priority to 150. A device priority of 150 is almost as high as the device priority of the primary FortiGate. So if the primary FortiGate fails, the Backup-2 FortiGate should become the new primary FortiGate.
  6. config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 150

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

  7. On the Backup-3 FortiGate, duplicate the primary FortiGate HA mode, group-id, group-name, password, override, and heartbeat device settings. Set the device priority to 100. A device priority of 100 means that if the backup FortiGate fails, the Backup-3 FortiGate will have the lowest device priority so will become the new backup FortiGate.

    config system ha

    set mode a-p

    set group-id 88

    set group-name My-vcluster

    set password <password>

    set priority 100

    set override enable

    set hbdev lan4 200 lan5 100

    end

    After you enable HA, each FortiGate negotiates to establish an HA cluster. You may temporarily lose connectivity as FGCP negotiation takes place and the MAC addresses of the FortiGate interfaces change to HA virtual MAC addresses.

    Note

    If these steps don't start HA mode, make sure that none of the FortiGate's interfaces use DHCP or PPPoE addressing.

    To reconnect sooner, you can update the ARP table of your management PC by deleting the ARP table entry for the FortiGate (or just deleting all ARP table entries). You can usually delete the ARP table from a command prompt using a command similar to arp -d.

    The FGCP uses virtual MAC addresses for failover. The virtual MAC address assigned to each FortiGate interface depends on the HA group ID. A group ID of 88 sets FortiGate interfaces to the following MAC addresses: 00:09:0f:09:58:00, 00:09:0f:09:58:01, 00:09:0f:09:58:02 and so on. For details, see Cluster virtual MAC addresses.

    You can verify that the FGCP has set the virtual MAC addresses by viewing the configuration of each FortiGate interface from the GUI (go to Network > Interfaces) or by entering the following CLI command (shown below for lan2 on a FortiGate-51E):

    get hardware nic lan2

    ...

    Current_HWaddr 00:09:0f:09:58:01

    Permanent_HWaddr 70:4c:a5:98:11:54

    ...

    You can also use the diagnose hardware deviceinfo nic lan2 command to display this information.

    The output shows the current hardware (MAC) address (the virtual MAC set by the FGCP) and the permanent hardware (MAC) address for the interface.